Chanka Quechua

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Chanka Quechua (Ayakuchu Runasimi / Qichwa simi)

Spoken in

speaker 1,000,000  
Official status
Official language in Peru (regional)
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3

quy, que (macro language)

Chanka or Ayacucho-Quechua ( Quechua : Chanka qichwa , Chanka Runasimi , Ayakuchu Runasimi , Spanish : Quechua Ayacuchano ) is a variety of Quechua spoken in the Peruvian departments of Ayacucho , Huancavelica and parts of Apurímac , the historical settlement area of ​​the Chanka people and is one of the most widely spoken varieties with around one million speakers. It is so similar to the dialects of Cuzco and Bolivia ( Qusqu-Qullaw ) that communication is quite possible and a common written language standard ( Southern Quechua ) has been developed.


In contrast to Quechua Qusqu-Qullaw, Chanka-Quechua has only simple and no ejective and aspirated plosives (p, t, ch, k, q), but on the other hand has retained original pronunciation features, especially the pronunciation of the plosives at the end of the syllable. As with the Qusqu-Qullaw, the original sh [ʃ] coincides with s [s], the retroflexe ch [ʈ͡ʂ] with ch [t͡ʃ]. The q is spoken like [χ] (German ch in Bach), in Huancavelica it coincides entirely with the [h]. In the script (compensation variant Southern Quechua) it is always represented with q, but [h] with h. The Chanka has - besides the Kichwa in Ecuador - the simplest sound system of the Quechua variants and is therefore relatively easy to learn for Europeans.


In the Chanka region, like in Cuzco and Bolivia, Quechua probably only penetrated relatively late, which is also supported by the relative uniformity of the language area compared to central Peru. The Chanka Quechua is linguistically and grammatically close to the Lengua general of the Incas as well as the language of the Huarochirí manuscript , so that this and other Quechua texts written in the early colonial period (e.g. the Doctrina Christiana ) are a starting point for more recent works in Chanka-Quechua, for example for the Catholic prayer book and catechism Janacc Pacha Ñan ("Heavenly Path ") by Florencio Coronado Romaní (1908-2006), which appeared in several editions in the 20th century .

A significant part of the entire Quechua literature originated in the Chanka variant. Mid-20th century published by José Salvador Cavero León (1912-2006) in the city, among other Huamanga / Ayacucho pieces listed Yana puyup intuykusqan ( "From the dark cloud", 1938) and Rasuwillkap wawankuna ( "The children of [ Berges] Rasuwillka ”, 1945). The writers José Oregón Morales (* 1949) from Salkabamba ( Tayacaja Province , Huancavelica Region) and Porfirio Meneses Lazón (1915–2009) from Huanta wrote their own short stories, Pablo Landeo Muñoz (* 1959) from Huancavelica also wrote his novel Aqupampa ( 2016) also contributed to the original prose in this Quechua variant. Among the poets, Hugo Carrillo Cavero (* 1956) from the Apurímac region and Dida Aguirre García (* 1953) from the Huancavelica region should be mentioned. The Ofrenda (1981) by Carlos Falconí, interpreted by Manuelcha Prado , is a model for a style of its own for the Quechua song, the “memorial song”, which has its origins in the armed conflict in Peru with tens of thousands of Quechua people killed Aramburú (* 1937). The Protestant pastor Quechua Florencio Segura Gutiérrez (1912-2000) wrote again from 1943 to 1996 several hundred hymns to Ayacucho Quechua (Hymns Diospa Siminmanta Takikuna ), far more than appeared in the same time on Spanish-language Christian songs in Peru.

In 1975 Chanka-Quechua was recognized as one of six variants by the government under Juan Velasco Alvarado , so that in 1976 the Peruvian Ministry of Education published a dictionary and grammar by Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz . Chanka-Quechua was also one of the first variants used in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IZE).

In 1987, under the title Chuya Qellqa (Holy Scripture), the first complete Quechua Bible translation into Chanka Quechua appeared in Peru, to which the Protestant Quechua pastor Rómulo Sauñe Quicaña had contributed significantly . A revision was published in 2012. The Catholic priest Florencio Coronado Romaní prepared his own translation for the Catholic diocese in Huancavelica (published 2002). The Jehovah's Witnesses published a New World Translation of the New Testament into Chanka Quechua in 2016 and also operate a language version of their website in Chanka Quechua.

Sociolinguistic situation today

The armed conflict in Peru in the 1980s and 1990s began in the Ayacucho region and claimed a particularly large number of lives among the speakers of Chanka Quechua. Many people fled to Lima and no longer passed their native Quechua on to the children there. This also applies at least in part to the urban environment in Huamanga / Ayacucho. Nevertheless, the Chanka Quechua is considered to be one of the most vital variants of Quechua and still has a fairly coherent linguistic area. In the cities in particular, bilingualism with Spanish dominates - a common transition to Spanish monolingualism - but there are indications that even in the capital of the department of Huamanga, Quechua is held alongside Spanish among the younger generation - unlike in the city of Cusco, for example . In promoting a positive Quechua identity as a prerequisite for the future transmission of the language, the women-founded organization Chirapaq ("rainbow" or "rain of falling stars") and the associated youth organization Ñuqanchik (" we " ) to play a key role. In 2014 young people in the vicinity of this group expressed their willingness to pass Quechua on to their descendants; others who had not learned Quechua from their parents later acquired it. But they did not see this will in many people from other contexts. In 2013, Ayacucho and Apurimac - with the implementation of the Language Law (Ley 29735) - are the two departments in Peru, each with 70% of schools, in which the highest proportion of schools - primary and secondary schools - with intercultural bilingual education is achieved. However, this means that still 30% (in Huancavelica over 60%) of the schools are monolingual Spanish. In Ayacucho, 2,280 schools use Quechua as a first and 337 as a second language, in Huancavelica 1,243 schools use Quechua as a first and 96 as a second language, in Apurimac - where both Qusqu-Qullaw and Chanka are used - 1,835 schools use Quechua as first and 143 as a second language. 29 schools in the Satipo Province in Junín also use Chanka Quechua as the language of instruction (first language). While in general most schools use Chanka-Quechua as their first language and Spanish as their second language, in the city of Ayacucho (district) the schools with Quechua as a second language predominate (110 versus 22 with Quechua as the first language). This reflects the language conditions in the urban center (native Spanish).

According to the Paris linguist César Itier 2016, the massive migration as a result of the armed conflict from the Ayacucho region to Lima due to the better publication opportunities in the capital was probably an important reason for the fact that most literary Quechua texts in the last 30 years were flat especially in Chanka-Quechua and often on exactly this topic.


  • "Rimaykullayki": teaching materials for Quechua Ayacuchano - Peru / zsgest. after Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz "Quechua - manual de enseñanza" Lima 1979 and supplemented by Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz ... Ed. by Roswith Hartmann. - Updated, ext. and revised New edition, 3rd edition - Berlin: Reimer, 1994. ISBN 3-496-02520-4
  • Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz (1976): Diccionario quechua Ayacucho-Chanca [- Castellano and vice versa]. Ministerio de educación del Perú
  • Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz (1976): Gramática Quechua Ayacucho-Chanca. Ministerio de Educación del Perú
  • Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz (1993): Quechua: manual de enseñanza, Instituto de Estudios Peruanas, 2a edición. ISBN 84-89303-24-X

Web links

Translations into Chanka Quechua

Official teaching materials

  • Sumaq kawsay - Kuskanchik yachasunchik (reading, writing). Volume 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 .
  • Yupana - Kuskanchik yachasunchik (arithmetic). Volume 1 , 2 .

Individual evidence

  1. Jonathan Ritter: Complementary Discourses of Truth and Memory. The Peruvian Truth Commission and the Canción Social Ayacuchana . Part III (Musical Memoralizations of Violent Pasts), 8 in: Susan Fast, Kip Pegley: Music, Politics, and Violence . Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticut 2012.
  2. Musuq Pachapi Kawsaqkunapaq Diospa Palabran (Mateo-Apocalipsis). Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Wallkill (USA), Associação Torre de Vigia de Bíblias e Tratados, Cesário Lange, São Paulo (Brasil) 2016.
  3. Jehovah Diospa testigonkuna (Jehovah's Witnesses, language version in Chanka-Quechua); for other language versions see language selection there.
  4. Xavier Albó: Indigenous movements in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. CIPCA, Tallinn, October 2008. p. 8.
  5. ^ Sarah Brigham: Indigenous Mobilization and its Effects on the Political Process: the Transformation of Indigenous Identities in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. . Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects, Paper 500. 2009.
  6. Utta von Gleich: Nueva dinámica en el bilingüismo Ayacuchano. Indiana 33.1, pp. 133-159. 2016 ( Download PDF ).
  7. Amy Firestone (2006): Runakuna hatarinqaku ('The people will rise up'): Revitalizing Quechua in urban Ayacucho, Peru ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. Tapio Keihäs: ¿Ser y hablar quechua? The realidad sociolingüística de Ayacucho desde la visión subjetiva de los jóvenes indígenas. Ideologías e identidades en el discurso metalingüístico. Master thesis, University of Helsinki 2014.
  9. Jóvenes predicen un futuro incierto para las lenguas indígenas. ( Memento of the original from March 21, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Chirapaq Ayacucho, accessed March 20, 2017.
  10. Perú, Ministerio de Educación, Dirección General de Educación Intercultural, Bilingüe y Rural: Documento Nacional de Lenguas Originarias del Perú , Relación de variantes del quechua, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junín , 2013. pp. 254, 275f., 328, 378.
  11. César Itier: Aqupampa, de Pablo Muñoz Landeo - la primera novela escrita en Quechua. Pututu 56 , pp. 1-5. Ollantaytambo (Peru), November 2016.