Indigenous American languages

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution areas of the indigenous languages ​​of North America before colonization
Indigenous American languages ​​with at least half a million speakers:
  • Quechua
  • Guaraní
  • Aymara
  • Nahuatl
  • Mayan languages
  • Mapudungun
  • The indigenous American languages are the languages ​​of the native Americans from today's states or areas of Canada , USA and Greenland via Mexico and Central America , the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America . They are made up of dozen of distinct language families as well as many isolated languages . Suggestions to group these into parent families have been made by some linguistssubmitted but not generally accepted. The classification of Voegelin & Voegelin (1965) is considered to be the last representation of the linguistic relationships on the American continent that met with general approval. Since then, the differences of opinion between those who assume a few large families (" lumpers ") and those who accept many different language families ("splitters") have intensified rather than become smaller.


    The settlement history of America

    Traditionally, the oldest surviving human traces in America have been believed to be of the Clovis culture ; This means that the American continent was settled around 10,000 to 12,000 years ago via the then frozen Bering Strait . More recent excavations and dating call into question the previous thesis that this was the first settlement, without any other settlement history having been able to establish itself in the professional world.

    In terms of molecular biology, according to current studies, the mitochondrial DNA of indigenous Americans has four lines, haplogroups ( A , B , C , D ) that can only be found in Asia on other continents . This supports the earlier thesis of immigration via the Bering Strait . Another, X -called mitochondrial DNA line of the indigenous Americans is found today mainly in India , rarely in Europe .

    In addition, the dentition of indigenous Americans and that of Asians have similarities that cannot be found elsewhere. Two groups of indigenous Americans also show their own sub-characteristics in dentistry, namely the Na-Dené and the Eskimo-Aleut . Due to their different languages, both are considered later immigrants after the American continent was already settled.

    Finally, it can also be inferred from the surviving written documents in Central America , the orally transmitted tribal narratives and the reports of Europeans from the early modern period that since the conquest of America by the Indian ancestors, population movements have repeatedly taken place over large stretches. In geographically isolated areas (mountains, primeval forest , islands), large linguistic differences could also arise on a small scale due to the slow population exchange. The first borrowings from European languages ​​into indigenous languages, mainly cultural words, took place as early as the 16th century . Corresponding borrowings from local elite languages ​​are likely to have occurred in the area of ​​the former indigenous empires of Central and South America.

    Writing systems

    The oldest native written evidence of indigenous American languages ​​comes from the Olmecs in Central America and dates back to around 900 BC. Chr. Dated. Other native scripts developed here, especially those of the Maya , Mixtecs , Zapotecs and Aztecs . There was a range of variation between a purely logographic script and a largely phonetic script . The written languages ​​cover a period of around 2000 years. Their decipherment has progressed to different degrees today. In any case, the texts that have come down to us are of extremely high importance in terms of the history of language and history in general for an understanding of the historical development. This is especially true because the writing systems come from different language families: Zapotec and Mixtec ( Oto-Mangue ), Aztec ( Uto-Aztec ) and Maya ( Macro-Maya ). The earliest traditions of indigenous American languages ​​come from the 16th century from the Christian missionaries who followed the conquest . However, they are also responsible for the destruction of many native codes out of a blind zeal for belief in the pagan symbols.

    In South America, independently of the European conquerors, the Inca developed an idea script made of strings, the Quipu , while in North America it was only under the influence of the Europeans that individual Indian tribes developed their own writing systems, such as the Cree and Cherokee script .

    All of the remaining native scripts were eventually replaced by the European scripts, i. H. the Cyrillic alphabet ( Aleut ) and now largely replaced by the Latin alphabet alone . The only exception is the “Canadian Aboriginal Symbols” , which was developed from the Cree script and extended to other peoples. However, even today many of the indigenous American languages ​​have never been written down or even properly linguistically recorded. The latter is especially true for South America.

    General linguistic overview

    From a linguistic point of view , few statements have been made about the spread of languages ​​and their dating at such time depths. However, Na-Dené and Eskimo-Aleut are also widely recognized linguistically as separate language families. The only thing less clear about these two groups is which of their closest relatives are.

    However, the relationship and subdivision of the other speakers and their languages ​​is controversial in the professional world. While the so-called “lumpers”, using omni-comparative methods like that of Greenberg, assume a single language family Amerind , the “splitters” that form the other extreme, such as Dixon (1999) and Campbell, postulate around 200 isolated languages ​​and language families, i. H. more than anywhere else in the world. The latter representatives also assume, against the background of Proto-Indo-European vs. Indo-European , that more than 5000 to 8000 years ago no more reliable relationships between today's languages ​​can be proven.

    The only generally recognized family of languages ​​found on both sides of the Bering Strait is the Eskimo-Aleut .

    Spread of the Eskimo-Aleut languages
    Dissemination of the Na Dené languages

    Connections between the Na-Dené and the Yenisese languages ​​are at least worth considering , according to recent research by Vajda and Werner. Since about 1920 there were part of the Americanists Edward Sapir and some of his students the theory of a genetic relationship of Sino Tibetan with the North American Na-Dene languages , which in the 1980s by Sergei Starostin and others on the "Sino-Caucasian" and finally to " Dene-Caucasian hypothesis" was expanded. Sapir was convinced that the Na-Dené languages ​​were genetically related to the Sino-Tibetan. In a letter to the Americanist Alfred Kroeber in 1921, he wrote:

    "If the morphological and lexical accord which I find on every hand between Nadene and Indo-Chinese (meaning Sinotibetic) is accidential, then every analogy on God's earth is an accident."

    Greenberg combines Eskimo Aleut with some other northern Eurasian languages ​​such as Indo-European , Ural and Altaic in the macro-language family "Eurasian".

    After the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America in 1492 , Spanish , English , Portuguese , French and Dutch were brought to America by European settlers and are now established as the official languages ​​of the independent states of America, although Bolivia , Paraguay , Ecuador and Peru are one or more indigenous American ones Have recognized languages ​​as an official language in addition to Spanish. Some Creole languages ​​also developed from European languages ​​in America .

    The attitudes of most European conquerors and their successors towards the indigenous American languages ​​ranged from benign neglect to active oppression.

    However, the Spanish missionaries preached to the indigenous people in their languages. For example, they spread Quechua beyond its original geographic area. Indigenous American languages ​​vary widely in the number of speakers, from Quechua , Aymara , Guarani, and Nahuatl with millions of active speakers on one side and a variety of languages ​​with only a handful of older speakers on the other. Many of the indigenous American languages ​​are critically endangered, while others are already extinct.

    Many North American languages, which have now become extinct, are probably only considered isolated languages because, due to poor documentation, their classification is hardly possible, or because any relatives - possibly in historical times, after the arrival of the Europeans - died out before they could be recorded. However, language families on the American continent are generally (mostly - with a few significant exceptions) comparatively small, especially in areas with a high population density such as the west coast of North America. In addition, many closely related language groups (some areas consisted of extensive continua of closely related varieties ) probably - and in some cases also verifiable from historical sources - only spread relatively shortly before or even after the start of research by the Europeans. Thus the American double continent is historically characterized by a remarkable abundance and multitude of languages ​​and language families, and a bewildering diversity both phylogenetically (with regard to language affinities and number of families) and typologically (with regard to the surface structure, which concerns the phonetic system and grammar). In an essay, Johanna Nichols described this detailed linguistic-geographical pattern as typical for (especially sedentary) tribal societies before the development of territorial states or empires, depending on geographical and climatic conditions and the population densities they made possible.


    The consensual structure according to Voegelin & Voegelin (1965)

    Early Localization Native Americans USA.jpg
    Early Indian Languages ​​Alaska.jpg

    The classification according to Voegelin & Voegelin (1965) was the result of a conference of American linguists at Indiana University in 1964 . This classification includes 16 main genetic groups:

    1. American-Arctic languages
    2. Na Dené languages (with a genetic connection to the Yenisan languages postulated today)
    3. Macro-Algonk
    4. Macro Sioux
    5. Hoka

     6. Penuti

     7. Aztec tano

     8. Keres
     9. Yuki
    10. Beothuk
    11. Kutenai
    12. Karankawa
    13. Chimakum
    14. Salish
    15. Wakash
    16. Timucua

    Chumash , Comecrudo and Coahuiltek were accepted in Hoka with reservations , and Esselen only with strong reservations. Tsimshian and Zuni were also only accepted in Penuti with reservations .

    Language families and isolated languages ​​according to Campbell and Mithun as well as Kaufmann

    South America

    Although both North and Central America are areas of great linguistic diversity, South America has a linguistic diversity that is matched only in a few places in the world with around 350 languages ​​still in existence and an estimated 1,500 languages ​​at the time of first European contact. The classification of languages ​​into genetic families is not as advanced as in North America (whose languages ​​are relatively well researched in many areas). As a result, many relationships between languages ​​and language families are unexplained, and some of the suspected relationships are on shaky ground.

    The list of language families and isolated languages ​​is fairly conservative, based on Campbell (1997). Many of the proposed (and often speculative) family groupings can be found in Campbell (1997), Gordon (2005), Kaufman (1990, 1994), Key (1979), and Loukotka (1968).

    Language families in the south
    1. Alacaluf (2) (Alacalufan)
    2. Arawá (8) (Arauan, Arahuan, Arawán)
    3. Araucanian (2) (Araucanian, Mapudungu)
    4. Arawakan ( South America and Caribbean ) (60) (Arawakan, Arahuacan, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipúrean)
    5. Arutani Sape (2)
    6. Aymará (3) (Jaqi, Aru)
    7. Barbacoa (6) (Barbacoan, Barbakóan)
    8. Kawapana (2) (Cahuapanan, Jebero, Kawapánan)
    9. Caribbean (29) (Carib, Pemón )
    10. Catacao (Catacaoan, Katakáoan)
    11. Chapacura-Wanham (9) (Chapacuran, Txapakúran, Chapakúran)
    12. Charrúa (Charruan, Charrúan)
    13. Chibcha ( Central America and South America ) (22) (Chibchan)
    14. Chimú (Chimuan)
    15. Chocó (10) (Chocoan, Chokó)
    16. Cholón (Cholonan)
    17. Chon (2) (Patagonian)
    18. Guajibo (4) (Guajiboan, Wahívoan)
    19. Guaicurú (Guaykuruan, Waikurúan)
    20. Harákmbut (2) (Tuyoneri)
    21. Jirajara (3) (Jirajaran)
    22. Jívaro (4) (Jivaroan, Hívaro)
    23. Katukina (3) (Katukinan, Catuquinan)
    24. Lule-Vilela (Lule-Viléran)
    25. Macro-Ge (32) (Macro-Ge)
    26. Maku (6)
    27. Mascoy (5) (Mascoyan, Maskóian, Mascoian)
    28. Mataco-Guaicurú (11)
    29. Mosetén (Mosetenan, Mosetén)
    30. Mura (4) (Muran)
    31. Nambiquara (5) (Nambiquaran)
    32. Otomaco (2) (Otomacoan, Otomákoan)
    33. Páez (6) (Paezan, Páesan)
    34. Pano-Tacana (30) (Pano-Tacanan, Pano-Takana, Pano-Tákanan)
    35. Peba-Yagua (2) (Peba-Yaguan, Yaguan, Yáwan, Peban)
    36. Puinave (Puinavean, Maku)
    37. Quechua (46)
    38. Sáliva (2) (Salivan)
    39. Timote (2) (Timotean)
    40. Tinigua (2) (Tiniguan, Tiníwan)
    41. Tucano (25) (Tucanoan, Tukánoan)
    42. Tupi (70)
    43. Uru-Chipaya (2) (Chipaya-Uru)
    44. Witoto (6) (Witotoan, Huitotoan, Bora-Witótoan)
    45. Yanomam (4)
    46. Zamuco (2) (Zamucoan)
    47. Záparo (7) (Zaparoan, Sáparoan)
    Language isolates or unclassified languages ​​in the south
    1. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia)
    2. Ahuaqué (also Auaké, Uruak, Awaké)
    3. Andoque (Colombia, Peru) (also Andoke)
    4. Arutani-Sapé (Brazil, Venezuela)
    5. Aushiri (also Auxira)
    6. Baenan (Brazil: Bahia) (also Baenán, Baenã)
    7. Betoi (Colombia) (also Betoy, Jirara)
    8. Camsá (Colombia) (also Sibundoy, Coche, Kamsá)
    9. Cundoshi (also Maina, Kundoshi)
    10. Canichana (Bolivia) (also Canesi, Kanichana)
    11. Cayubaba (Bolivia)
    12. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador) (also Kofán)
    13. Cueva
    14. Culle (Peru) (also Culli, Linga, Kulyi)
    15. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) (also Atacama, Atakama, Atacameño, Lipe, Kunsa)
    16. Esmeralda (also Takame)
    17. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão)
    18. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia)
    19. Guamo (Venezuela) (also Wamo)
    20. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco)
    21. Huarpe (also Warpe)
    22. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
    23. Itonama (Bolivia) (also Saramo, Machoto)
    24. Jotí (Venezuela)
    25. Kaliana (also Caliana, Cariana, Sapé, Chirichano)
    26. Kapixaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (also Kanoé, Kapishaná)
    27. Karirí (Brazil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará)
    28. Kaweskar (also Alacaluf, Alakaluf, Kawaskar, Kawesqar, Qawasqar, Qawashqar, Halawalip, Aksaná, Hekaine, Chono, Caucau, Kaueskar, Aksanás, Kaweskar, Kawéskar, Kakauhau, Kaukaue)
    29. Koayá (Brazil: Rondônia)
    30. Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
    31. Leco (also Lapalapa, Leko)
    32. Maku (also Macu)
    33. Malibú (also Malibu)
    34. Mapudungun (Chile, Argentina)
    35. Matanawí
    36. Mocana
    37. Móvima (Bolivia)
    38. Munichi (Peru) (also Muniche)
    39. Mutú (also Loco)
    40. Nambiquara (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
    41. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
    42. Old Catío-Nutabe (Colombia)
    43. Omurano (Peru) (also Mayna, Mumurana, Numurana, Maina, Rimachu, Roamaina, Umurano)
    44. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo)
    45. Palta
    46. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
    47. Panzaleo (Ecuador) (also Latacunga, Quito, Pansaleo)
    48. Puelche (also Guenaken, Gennaken, Pampa, Pehuenche, Ranquelche)
    49. Puquina (Bolivia)
    50. Resígaro (border area between Colombia and Peru)
    51. Sabela (Ecuador, Peru) (also Auca, Huaorani)
    52. Sechura (also Atalan, Sec)
    53. Salumã (Brazil)
    54. Tairona (Colombia)
    55. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grund do Norte)
    56. Taushiro (Peru) (also Pinchi, Pinche)
    57. Tequiraca (Peru) (also Avishiri, Tekiraka)
    58. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) (also Magüta, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukna, Tukuna)
    59. Trumai (Brazil: Xingu, Mato Grosso)
    60. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco)
    61. Urarina (also Shimacu, Itukale)
    62. Warao (Venezuela: Orinoco Delta, Guyana) (also Guarao)
    63. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco)
    64. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba)
    65. Yaghan / Yámana (Chile) (also Yagan, Yahgan, Yaghan, Yamana, Yámana)
    66. Yaruro (also Jaruro)
    67. Yuracaré (Bolivia)
    68. Yurí (Colombia, Brazil) (also Jurí)
    69. Yurumanguí (Colombia) (also Yirimangi)

    Mexico and Central America

    Language families in Mexico and Central America
    1. Algic ( USA and Mexico ) (29) (Algic)
    2. Chibcha ( Central America and South America ) (22) (Chibchan)
    3. Comecrudo ( Texas and Mexico ) (3) (Comecrudan)
    4. Guaicuri (8) (Guaicurian, Waikurian)
    5. Jicaque (Jicaquean)
    6. Lenca (Lencan)
    7. Maya (31) (Mayan)
    8. Misumalpa (Misumalpan)
    9. Mixe-Zoque (19) (Mixe-Zoquean)
    10. Na-Dené ( USA and Mexico ) (40)
    11. Otomangue (27) (Oto-Manguean)
    12. Tequistlatecan (3) (Tequistlatecan)
    13. Totonacan (2) (Totonacan)
    14. Uto-Aztec ( US and Mexico ) (31) (Uto-Aztecan)
    15. Xinca (Xincan)
    16. Cochimí-Yuma ( USA and Mexico ) (11) (Yuman-Cochimí)
    Isolated or unclassified languages ​​in Mexico and Central America
    1. Alagüilac (Guatemala)
    2. Coahuiltec (US: Texas; Northeast Mexico)
    3. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; USA: Texas)
    4. Cuitlatek (Mexico: Guerrero)
    5. Huetar (Costa Rica)
    6. Huave (Mexico: Oaxaca)
    7. Maratino (northeast Mexico)
    8. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas)
    9. Quinigua (northeast Mexico)
    10. Seri (Mexico: Sonora)
    11. Solano (northeast Mexico; USA: Texas)
    12. Taraskan (Mexico: Michoacán) (also Purépecha)

    Canada and USA

    North American languages ​​in northern Mexico, Canada, and the United States

    Classification of the indigenous languages ​​of America according to Greenberg (1987)

    Joseph Greenberg postulates that all indigenous languages ​​of America - except those belonging to Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dené (including Haida ) - are part of a macro family called Amerind .

    1. North American
      1. Almosan-Keresiouan
        1. Almosanian
          1. Algisch
          2. Kutenai
          3. Mosan
            1. Wakash
            2. Salish
            3. Chimakum
        2. Caddo
        3. Keres
        4. Sioux
        5. Iroquois
      2. Penuti
        1. California penuti
          1. Maidu
          2. Miwok-Costanoa
          3. Wintun
          4. Yokuts
        2. Chinook
        3. Mexican penuti (= macro Maya)
          1. Huave
          2. Maya
          3. Mixe-Zoque
          4. Totonak
        4. Oregon Penuti
        5. Plateau Penuti
        6. Tsimshian
        7. Yuki
        8. golf
          1. Atakapa
          2. Chitimacha
          3. Muskogee
          4. Natchez
          5. Tunica
        9. Zuñi
      3. Hoka
        1. Core hoka
          1. Northern group
            1. Karok Shasta
            2. Yana
            3. Pomo
          2. Washo
          3. Esselen-Yuma
          4. Salinan - Seri
          5. Waicuri
          6. Maratino
          7. Quinigua
          8. Tequistlatec
        2. Coahuiltec
          1. Tonkawa
          2. Kern Coahuiltec
          3. Karankawa
        3. Subtiaba
        4. Jicaque
        5. Yurumangui
    2. Central Amerindian
      1. Kiowa-Tano
      2. Oto-Mangue
      3. Uto-Aztec
      4. Central American (groups other than Tlapanek (= Hoka))
    3. Chibcha-Páez (with two large subfamilies)
      1. Timucua
    4. Andean group (with two large subfamilies)
    5. Equatorial Tucano (with two large subfamilies)
    6. Ge-Pano-Caribbean (or Macro-Ge / Macro-Pano / Macro-Caribbean ) (with three major subfamilies)

    Further classification suggestions

    There are many other suggestions for classifying the indigenous American languages, but have never been confirmed by actual research. Some suggestions are considered likely by those skilled in the art, for example Penuti . Other proposals are more controversial, e.g. B. Hoka .

    Finally, here is an incomplete list of such suggestions (in the English original):

    1. Algonkian Gulf   (= Algic + Beothuk + Gulf)
    2. Aztec-Tanoan   (= Uto-Aztecan + Kiowa-Tanoan)
    3. Chibchan-Paezan
    4. Coahuiltecan   (= Coahuilteco + Cotoname + Comecrudan + Karankawa + Tonkawa)
    5. Dene-Caucasian
    6. Gulf   (= Muskogean + Natchez + Tunica)
    7. Hoka-Siouan   (= Hoka + Subtiaba-Tlappanec + Coahuiltecan + Yukian + Keresan + Tunican + Iroquoian + Caddoan + Siouan-Catawba + Yuchi + Natchez + Muskogee + Timucua)
    8. Macro-Carib
    9. Macro Ge
    10. Macro Mayan
    11. Macro-Panoan
    12. Macro-Tucanoan
    13. Mosan   (= Salishan + Wakashan + Chimakuan)
    14. Quechumaran
    15. Takelman   (= Takelma + Kalapuyan)
    16. Tunican   (= tunica + Atakapa + Chitimacha)
    17. Wappo-Yukian   (= Wappo + Yukian)
    18. Yok-Utian   (= Yokutsan + Utian)

    Discussions about the latest proposals are found in Campbell (1997) and Campbell & Mithun (1979).

    Pidgins, mixed languages ​​and business languages

    1. Labrador Eskimo Pidgin (also Labrador Inuit Pidgin)
    2. Hudson Strait Pidgin
    3. Greenlundic Eskimo Pidgin
    4. Eskimo Trade Jargon (also Herschel Islund Eskimo Pidgin, Ship's Jargon)
    5. Mednyj Aleut (also Copper Islund Aleut, Medniy Aleut, CIA)
    6. Haida jargon
    7. Chinook slang
    8. Nootka jargon
    9. Broken Slavey (also Slavey jargon, Broken Slavé)
    10. Kutenai jargon
    11. Loucheux jargon (also Loucheux jargon)
    12. Inuktitut-English Pidgin
    13. Michif (also French Cree, Métis, Metchif, Mitchif, Métchif)
    14. Broken Oghibbeway (also Broken Ojibwa)
    15. Basque-Algonquian Pidgin (also Micmac-Basque Pidgin, Souriquois)
    16. Montagnais Pidgin Basque (also Pidgin Basque-Montagnais)
    17. American Indian Pidgin English
    18. Delaware jargon (also Pidgin Delaware)
    19. Pidgin Massachusett
    20. Jargonized Powhatan
    21. Ocaneechi
    22. Lingua Franca Creek
    23. Lingua Franca Apalachee
    24. Mobilian Jargon (also Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw-Chocaw Trade Language, Yamá)
    25. Güegüence-Nicarao
    26. Carib Pidgin (also Ndjuka-Amerindian Pidgin, Ndjuka-Trio)
    27. Carib Pidgin-Arawak mixed language
    28. Guajiro-Spanish
    29. Media Lengua
    30. Catalangu
    31. Callahuaya (also Machaj-Juyai, Kallawaya, Collahuaya, Pohena; language of the Kallawaya )
    32. Nheengatu (also Lingua Geral Amazônica, Lingua Boa, Lingua Brasílica, Lingua Geral do Norte)
    33. Lingua Geral do Sul (also Lingua Geral Paulista, Tupí Austral)

    Linguistic areas

    The languages ​​of America can often be grouped into linguistic areas or language groups (also areas of convergence ). The areas that are known to date require further research to confirm their validity and to distinguish between area-related and genetically-related features.

    The following, preliminary list of linguistic areas is mainly based on Campbell (1997):

    North America

    • plateau
    • Northern California
    • Clear Lake
    • southern coastal area
    • Southern California – Western Arizona
    • Great Basin
    • Pueblo
    • Plains
    • Northeast
    • southeast


    South America

    See also


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    • Boas, Franz (1922). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
    • Boas, Franz (1929). Classification of American Indian languages. Language , 5 , 1-7.
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    Web links

    Individual evidence

    1. RMW Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald: The Amazonian languages. (Cambridge Language Surveys) Cambridge CUP 1999.
    2. Rick Kearns: Indigenous languages ​​added to new Ecuadorian constitution . ( Memento of the original from September 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Indian Country , August 22, 2008. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    3. ^ Johanna Nichols: Linguistic diversity and the first settlement of the New World . In: Language . 66, 1990, pp. 475-521.
      Compare also: Johanna Nichols: Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time . University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1992, ISBN 0-226-58056-3 .