Economy of Peru

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Flag of Peru.svg
World economic rank 48th (nominal) (2017)
currency 1 Nuevo Sol = 100 Céntimos
Conversion rate 1 € = S /. 3,768
(as of March 1, 2018)
Key figures
Gross domestic
product (GDP)
$ 215.2 billion (nominal) (2017)
$ 424.4 billion ( PPP ) (2017)
GDP per capita $ 6,199 (nominal) (2017)
$ 13,334 (PPP) (2017)
GDP by economic sector Agriculture: 7.5%,

Industry: 36.3%,
services 56.1% (2017)

growth 2.7% (2017)
inflation rate 3.2% (2017) (2017)
Gini index 52 (2008)
Employed 17.03 million (2017)
Employed persons by economic sector Agriculture: 25.8%,

Industry: 17.4%,
services 56.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate 6.7 (2017)
Foreign trade
export $ 42.47 billion
Export goods Gold, zinc, petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, fish meal
Export partner China 26.5%, USA 15.2%, Switzerland 5.2%, South Korea 4.4%, Spain 4.1%, India 4.1% (2017)
import $ 38.80 billion
Import goods Petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machines, vehicles, iron / steel, paper, wheat
Import partner China 22.3%, USA 20.1%, Brazil 6.0%, Mexico 4.4%, Chile 4.2% (2017)
public finances
Public debt 25.7% of GDP (2017)
Government revenue $ 59.66 billion (2017)
Government spending $ 65.48 billion (2017)
Budget balance -2.4% of GDP (2017)

The economy of Peru has been shaped by its wealth of natural resources since colonial times. Agricultural products also play a major role. The export of copper, gold and silver in particular depends on the economic situation on the world market. This has an impact on the domestic economy. For the years between 2001 and 2016, 67% of the changes in gross domestic product were caused by events in the world economy. Agriculture, however, is subject to changing climatic conditions (El Nino / La Niña).

At the beginning of the 20th century, various governments tried to develop the country economically. The role of the state was assessed differently in the various approaches. After the end of the Cold War, along with the planned economies of the Eastern Bloc or China, their influence as models for economic policy also disappeared. Liberal economic concepts prevailed. Today, Peru is the most economically stable country in Latin America with the lowest risk of default, ahead of Mexico and Colombia. It is also characteristic of the solid economic condition that after the year 2000, under the governments of Toledo and Garcia, the Peruvian currency appreciated against the dollar, something that had never happened before in Peruvian history, and this with a low inflation rate .

The digital infrastructure is as well developed as in Spain, for example. However, Peru is lagging behind in the use of digital technology, for example in industrial production.

96.5% of businesses in Peru belong to the small and very small business category. There are 400,000 small businesses (corner shops, bakeries and restaurants) that generate more than 20 billion soles. You export very little. Approximately 8.13 million employees work in small companies which generate 20.6% of the gross domestic product. The number of large and medium-sized companies is decreasing. They generate 97.8% of Peruvian exports.

The growth of the Peruvian economy is hampered by its low productivity. The downward trend started in 1980 and continued until 1992. A Peruvian worker is two times less productive than a Chilean, five times less than the United States.

Of the ten companies with the highest turnover in Peru, six are in foreign hands. They can be found in banking, telecommunications, and mining. On the other hand, six large Peruvian companies are also represented in other Latin American countries: Alicorp , Grupo Gloria , Banco de Crédito del Perú (BCP), Ferreyros , Minsur and Primax . Three others are active worldwide: Ajegroup (AJE), Belcorp and Unión Andina de Cementos (UNACEM). The Peruvian companies that are expanding the most belong to the categories of consumer goods, agro-export, hotel and tourism. The development of many companies is hampered by a lack of capital.

Macroeconomic data

The gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was around 192 billion US dollars in 2016, or 6,782 US dollars per capita.

GDP (growth in%)
year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Growth in% 5.8 2.4 3.3 4.0 2.7

The main economic sectors are fishing and mining. The country has one of the highest growth rates in the region (for comparison: Chile 1.6%, Colombia 1.9%, Mexico 2.3%). Including the shadow economy, the gross domestic product could be almost twice as high.

In 2017, a trade surplus of $ 5,609 million was achieved, which is $ 3,879 million more than in 2016. This is due to the increase in production volume and the higher prices for ores on the world market. The inflation rate is low:

Inflation (in%) - For 2017 it is an estimate.
year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Inflation in% 2.9 3.2 4.4 3.2 1.4

Corporate structure

At the beginning of 2019, there were 2,400,000 companies in Peru. They are broken down as follows:

Economic history development

During the twelve-year military dictatorship from 1968 to 1980, the economy had to endure several attempts at reform. Due to the unprofessional implementation and corruption , these attempts led to the gradual ruin of the country. After that, nationalization and privatization changed from government to government, which counteracted the development of a functioning economy. At the beginning of the 1980s, foreign investors were allowed to enter the country in order to promote the extraction of natural resources. Large-scale development projects in the field of agricultural irrigation have been implemented with international help. The increase in agricultural production among the highland Indians and domestic industries, the decentralization of the economy, control of the monopolies and new labor laws could only be achieved to a small extent. Government, economic and financial crises shook the country, leading to an enormous decrease in industrial production and purchasing power . The result was an inflation of 7000% at the beginning of 1990.

Under President Alberto Fujimori , the prices were released and the market was completely opened up to foreign investors. The external tariffs were reduced from 100% to 12%. Through these measures, Peru achieved a true economic miracle. Between 1990 and 2010 GDP per inhabitant increased fivefold. Economic growth was already over 12% in 1994 and was the highest in South America. With the privatization and sale of unprofitable state-owned companies (mining company Hierroperú and airline AeroPeruan) to foreign investors, the ailing treasury was also replenished.

Consumer price index in Peru and four other states in northwestern South America , 1994–2004

In the following years, especially after Garcías took office (2006), the economy had a high growth rate averaging around five percent annually. Peru's economy, which is based on raw material exports, benefited from significantly rising international raw material prices. At the same time, the number of registered environmental and social conflicts associated with the exploitation of ores, oil and natural gas rose to 129 in 2012. The strong dependence on ore exports is viewed increasingly critically; the government seeks greater diversification of the economy.


Indigenous Peruvian women with alpaca

Above all, the numerous indigenous population groups of Peru often still live from independent subsistence farming using traditional methods : In the Selva, these are tropical horticultural forms , which are mostly practiced as semi-sedentary shifting agriculture . Depending on the ethnic group, this is more or less supplemented by hunting and gathering . In the highlands the Indians operate sedentary arable farming and in the drier Punaregionen an extensive remote pasture with alpacas that the transhumance of the old world is very similar. The demand for alpaca wool leads to a stronger market orientation of the pasture industry and consequently to changes in livestock technologies and migration cycles. However, increased use can endanger the fragile ecosystem.

The share of agriculture in the gross domestic product has decreased noticeably, but 33% of all employees still work in the agricultural sector . About a quarter of the area of ​​Peru can be described as agricultural area. However, only 2.5% is used as arable land. The main crops are rice (350,000 ha), potatoes (304,000 ha) and maize (350,000 ha). In economic terms, a distinction is made between traditional (coffee, potatoes, etc.) and recently introduced products (mango fruits, bananas, quinoa, avocados, artichokes, asparagus, grapes, etc.) in agricultural products. Most, 90% of the 2,200,000 farms are family farms. The use of fertilizers is not widespread. 56.1% of the farmers do not use any and 32.7% only a little. Only 11.2% used enough fertilizer.

Agricultural exports have risen sharply, from US $ 580 million in 2000 to an estimated US $ 6,100 million in 2017. Peru is the eighth largest exporter of spices (pepper and garlic) in the world. Peru has been the largest exporter of quinoa since 2014. 50% of the world's production comes from Peru. According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture, Peru is now also the fifth largest grape producer worldwide (according to figures from 2016) - exports reached a value of 646.3 million US $ - and the world's third largest exporter of blueberries (12% share of the world market).

The largest agricultural fair in Latin America is also held in Peru, the Expoalimentaria with 45,000 visitors and 600 exhibitors.


The potato originally comes from Peru. The country is one of the 15 main producing countries in the world. Potato production was 4.5 million tons in 2016. There are between 3,000 and 5,000 varieties in total. The potatoes grow up to an altitude of 4,700 m. 710.00 Family businesses grow potatoes. However, the production volume is only between 14 and 15 tons / hectare.


Coffee is the most important Peruvian export product of the agricultural industry. The main customers are the USA, Germany and Belgium. 220,000 small farmers live from its cultivation. It is the most common agricultural product that is grown; The main cultivation areas are San Martin (33%), Cajamarca (18%), Junín (16%) and the Amazon (14%). Ecologically certified coffee is grown on 90,000 hectares. It is estimated that $ 750 million to $ 800 million in coffee will be sold in 2017. In 2016, sales were $ 670 million (13% more than last year). 92% of the production is exported, only 8% is consumed in Peru itself.

Non traditional agricultural products

In the first 11 months of 2013, non-traditional agricultural products were exported for US $ 2,933.1 million. This corresponds to a growth of 8.1%.

Asparagus was the first agricultural product that Peru exported. Its cultivation began in 1985. In 2003 Peru was the main exporter worldwide. Asparagus has a share of 18.2% (US $ 532.7 million) in agricultural exports, followed by fresh grapes, avocados and mangoes. Grapes are now the second most important export good for the Peruvian agro-industry (10.9% of exports). The main purchaser for agricultural exports was the USA (27.9%) (US $ 1.017 million), followed by Holland with a volume of US $ 401.9 million. In the case of Colombia, exports fell the most (73.1%). Total exports of traditional agricultural goods amount to US $ 713 million.

The main growing area for rice and sugar cane is the northern Costa, where extensive areas are cultivated through artificial irrigation. As for organic farming, in 2016 products worth a total of 380 million US dollars were exported, mainly bananas, cocoa and quinoa. This means an increase of 19.6% in five years. Peru exported quinua worth US $ 190 million in 2014. Quinua is grown on a total of 60,000 hectares. The growing areas are mainly in the Andes, in Puno and Ayacucho. In 2017 Peru exported cocoa and cocoa products worth more than 240 million US $, half of which went to the countries of the European Union.

The Amazon region supplies a large part of the fruit .


More than half of the land area of ​​Peru is covered with forest. The trees are not looked after, only cut down . There are protection laws and parts of the Amazon are nature reserves , but hardly anyone cares. Again and again there is illegal logging , which enables the majority of the Indians to survive. The main area of timber is on the eastern slope of the Andes and in the Amazon region.


Peru is the second largest fishing nation in the world after China and the Peruvian Pacific coast is one of the most fish-rich areas in the world. Fishing and fish processing are among the most important export branches. In 1970, Peru, with a total catch of around 12 million tons, contributed more than 20% of the world's total landings of sea fish. However, catches have been falling since 1990. Most of the fishing licenses are granted to Chinese fleets. 28.4% of all fishing is crafted from fishing trawlers within the 5 mile zone on the coast. Of 18,000 fishing boats, 8,300 are registered or are seeking state registration. About 10,000 have not been reported to the authorities. The aim is to register all fishing trawlers with a storage capacity of over 6.48 to 32.3 cubic meters.

In 2017, $ 2,533 million in fishery products were exported. In 2018, 6 million tons of anchovies , a species of anchovy that lives in surface water, are expected to be caught. Squids are the second most important catch. Artisanal fishing is done by 14,000 fishermen. Tuna is expected to be exported for US $ 250 million in 2019 and sold 10 million cans domestically. There are also mackerel and cod. China is the buyer of more than half of Peruvian fishery products. Fish meal is the most important product of the Peruvian fishing industry and Peru is the world's largest producer. In 2017, the GDP of the fish rice sector grew by 9.5% due to the larger catch of anchovies. Between 2012 and 2016, an average of 799,900 tons of fishmeal were produced and 867,100 tons were exported each year. According to an estimate by the FAO, the value of uncontrolled fishing amounts to 360 million US dollars annually.


Gold , silver and copper have been mined in Peru for more than 2000 years . During the colonial times, the mother country Spain attached importance to the precious metals in order to finance the enormous expenses. The mining areas are in the central Andes, Cajamarca and Toquepala.

70% of the ore production is controlled by large multinational corporations. The largest mining company in Peru is Buenaventura, which exploits the gold deposits. It also holds shares in Yanacocha, which is majority owned by the US company Newmont, and owns 19.85% of the Cerro Verde copper mine from FreeportMcMoran.

Mining grew by 21.2 percent in 2016, the highest growth rate in the last 25 years. It contributes 20 percent to tax revenues.

The main export products of the mining industry are copper, zinc and gold. Metallic and non-metallic mining products generate $ 27,745 million and account for 61.8% of exports.

With 2.46 million solid metric tons, Peru is the world's second largest producer of copper after Chile (2019). Most of the country only exports ores. Most of it comes from Cerro Verde. After the plant in La Oroya was shut down, there is only one left for such pure copper production in Ilo (Moquegua, refinery of the Southern Cooper Corporation). Because of this, the proportion of refined copper that is exported is not even 20%

The second most important export product is gold. Peru is the main Latin American gold producer (151 tons in 2017) and ranks sixth worldwide.

50 percent of Peruvian gold production comes from La Libertad (43 tons) and Cajamarca (33 tons). Arequipa (20 tons) and Ayacucho (12 tons) follow. Peru is the largest silver producer worldwide (2017: 4,304 tons). Áncash, Lima and Junín are the most important regions here, they generate 55 percent of silver production.

In addition, antimony , lead and iron ore , chromium , cadmium , cobalt , magnesium , manganese , molybdenum , nickel , mercury , selenium , tellurium , uranium , vanadium , bismuth , tungsten and zinc are mined. Rock crystal , borax , brown coal , dumorierita , feldspar , gypsum , mica , graphite , nepheline , phosphates , saltpeter , sulfur , barite , bituminous coal and salt are extracted from non-metals . These minerals are often mined in opencast mines, but also in mines at altitudes over 5000 meters.

The regions in which mining is carried out receive part of the tax revenue (Canon minero) and can thus implement projects. The problem here is that, if at all, the money is often not spent on social causes.

The extraction of natural resources is viewed increasingly critically from the perspective of environmental damage. In La Oroya , for example , one of the places with the greatest environmental pollution in the world, mining stopped in 2009.

Investments in mining:

About 15 percent more investments were expected for 2017 than for the previous year.

Construction industry

The construction industry plays an important role, and cement consumption serves as an economic barometer. Sectoral growth of 3.6% is expected for 2017. That seems too optimistic as there have only been negative growth rates in the past few years. The growth in residential construction is impaired, among other things, by the often lacking infrastructure (sewerage, water supply). A large part (70%) of the activity can be assigned to self-construction. The construction companies get 72% of their income from the improvement of the infrastructure in the countryside, 20% in Lima and 9% abroad.

Growth in the construction industry (in%)
year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Growth in% 15.89 9.42 −1.8 −5.76 −3.15


Crude oil is produced in the northern coastal area and in the Amazon basin . In 1977 a 900 km long pipeline was built from the Amazon region to the port city of Bayóvar to transport the crude oil from the inaccessible jungle to the industrial area. Oil is of little importance for export, but is important for the Peruvian industry. The extraction of natural gas and crude oil in the Amazon region has been causing disputes between the Peruvian government and the indigenous communities affected for years. The subsidy decreased by 44% between 2008 and 2017, so that not even the internal consumption is covered anymore.

Oil production
year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Barrels / day / million 77 71 73 69 67 63 69 58 40 43


Industry currently (2017) contributes 13% to gross domestic product, the lowest in 50 years. It has 1.5 million employees and generates 18% of tax revenues. The share of foreign investments is 14%. 23% of corporate loans are given to industry. Around 800 small and medium-sized enterprises are active in this sector. Often these are family businesses.

The industry is concentrated around the coastal cities of Lima , Chimbote , Chiclayo and Trujillo . Important branches are food and beverage production, sugar cane processing , fish meal production , the chemical industry and the processing and processing of ore. The steel industry, like the textile industry, is under severe pressure from imports from China.

Finished goods account for only 22% of exports (US $ 5,359 million for 2010).

Industrial production growth (in%)
year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Worth % 10.6 8.6 −6.7 10.8 8.6 1.5 5 −3.6 −1.5 −1.7

Industrial production fell by 6.7% for three consecutive years. As a result, 150,000 jobs were lost in this sector (−5.4%). The textile industry (−39.9%), the paper and wood processing industry (−20.1%) and the chemical industry (-19.4%) were hardest hit. The fishing industry fell by −13.6%.

Metal processing industry

It is mainly found in the north of Lima (Infanta, Los Olivos). There are over 500 companies here. Your customers come from the energy supply, plastics manufacturing and mining industries. In 2009, approximately 400 companies had sales of $ 230 million.

Pharmaceutical Industry

There are 17 pharmaceutical companies in Peru. In recent years, local drug production has declined. At the same time imports increased. In 1996 the share of imports was still 23%, today it amounts to two thirds of the total turnover (2.293 million US $) of this sector. Their share in the total gross domestic product of the consumer goods industry also decreased. This also applies to the clinical studies. In 2009 there were 143, in 2018 there were only 43. There is a potential of 60 million US $.

Textile industry

There are a total of 90,000 companies in the textile industry, which generate 1.43% of the gross national product. In 2016, they exported goods worth $ 1,202 million. The textile industry's exports are mainly to the United States. 80% of exports are made by 20 companies. The exports of the textile industry go to only a few countries, such as Venezuela. As a result, their share in exports has also decreased from 30% to 7%.

The high wages, 450 US dollars / month, three times as much as in Central America or Vietnam are worrying. That is why cheap products are not used and production is switched to fashionable products and good quality fabrics. A large part of the textile companies, around 30%, have now switched to only marketing textile products.

In addition to industrial production, there are also craft businesses for the processing of wool and cotton , jute , hides and furs in the interior of the country and in the Amazon region.

The center of the textile trade is Gamarra, the shoe and leather processing industry is in Caqueta and Trujillo (La Libertad).

Service sector

The service sector creates the most jobs and is one of the top performers of the Peruvian economy (4.6% growth in 2018). It generates 30 percent of the Peruvian gross domestic product, annually 6,300 million dollars in foreign currency (2016). The $ 6,760 million was exceeded in 2017. In 2004 it was $ 1,993 million. For 2021, $ 13,000 million is expected. 70 percent of the services are intended for Latin American customers.

The largest Peruvian bank is BCP (Banco de Crédito) of the Peruvian financial holding Credicorp (sales $ 11,364 million), followed by BBVA Continental (sales $ 6,052 million) of Grupo Brescia del Perú and Spanish BBVA, Scotiabank, Interbank and Mibanco. The Banco de Credito del Peru (BCP) has the largest share of consumer credit, followed by the Interbank. The deposits of the cooperative banks (Cooperativas de ahorro y crédito) - there are 600 of them - are 8,500 million soles. In total, the banks' credit risks amount to 236,351 million soles, 65% of which are corporate loans (2017). The banks' reserves exceed the legally required minimum by 120%. Today, more banking transactions are carried out over the Internet (40%) than through bank branches (35%).

retail trade

The Peruvian retail sector has the greatest growth in Latin America and ranks ninth worldwide. Sales grew by 4.4 percent in 2017, and growth of 6 percent is expected for 2018. It is estimated that the 78 shopping centers sold goods worth 25,953 million soles in 2017; this would correspond to an increase of 9.4 percent compared to 2016. There are a total of 4,525 stores in Peru. The retail sector employs 108,000 people, 51.8 percent of whom are women (as of 2018).


Ecotourism is ideal because there is a lot of untouched nature, especially in the Andean lowlands in the east of the country. The Andes offer hikes near Huaraz and Cusco as well as Machu Picchu , one of the most important tourist destinations in South America. The Colca Canyon north of Arequipa is a popular trekking destination. In recent years, the Amazon region around the city of Iquitos has also developed as an attractive travel destination. Also, the Lake Titicaca is a tourist highlight.

The country is well developed with a dense road network, but apart from the main traffic routes, most of the roads are unpaved, uneven and often impassable in the rainy season. The mountainous location and the great distances can also make traveling in the country more difficult than in Europe.

Due to the civil war-like conditions in the mid-1980s, tourism stagnated. This trend was reversed in the 1990s and now makes a significant contribution to the economy as an important and stable area. In 2011 tourism was the third largest foreign exchange earner in Peru. Another problem is pollution. The state environmental authority DIGESA reported in 2014 that 45 of 221 beaches examined were polluted. Among them, 12 is at risk for health because the wastewater flows directly into the sea. The pollution mainly affects the beaches in Lima. Here 28 are dirty. There are 311 beaches in total.

In 2016, tourism brought in US $ 4,303 million in foreign exchange. 4.6 million tourists came, 3.9% more than in 2015. 47% of the tourists come from Latin America, mainly from Chile.

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  64. Revista 17, Autumn 2014, Harvard Review of Latin America; REVISTA.DRCLAS.HARVARD.EDU page 17/18, refers to an unpublished study by Michael E. Porter, Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo, Adolfo Chiri and Christian Ketels, 2011 "Peru: A Strategy for Sustaining Growth and Prosperity".
  65. Christian Alcalá 24 Feb 2020, "Article Menos del 20 % del cobre peruano se refina en el país "
  66. April 26, 2018 Article Utilidades de Buenaventura se hunden 60% en primer trimestre
  67. El Comercio, Lima February 16, 2017, page 16.
  68. El Comercio, June 4, 2012, .
  69. Article Minería en Perú: Exportaciones mineras en 2017 crecieron 24% of February 8, 2018
  70. Christian Alcalá 24 Feb 2020, "Article Menos del 20 % del cobre peruano se refina en el país "
  71. Inversiones en proyectos auríferos suman US $ 7,221 millones. In: May 9, 2018, Retrieved May 10, 2018 (Spanish).
  72. a b Article Perú: primer productor de oro en Latinoamérica y sexto a escala mundial of February 6, 2018; Source: Sociedad Nacional de Minería, Petróleo y Energía (SNMPE). Data as of 2017
  73. Article Perúpetro: Sabotaje a Oleoducto Norperuano daña a toda la industria
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  78. Article Leslie Pierce: “Síder-Perú crecerá entre 8% y 9% este año ”by Carlos Hurtado de Mendoza, March 26, 2018
  79. El Comercio, Lima February 22, 2017, page 18. Article by Maria Jose Gallo and Gonzalo Torrico, refer to data from the BCR (Banco Central de Reserva del Peru).
  80. El Comercio, Lima February 22, 2017, page 18. Source INEI / IEC Capeco (Camera Peruana de la Construccion)
  81. Jump up ↑ Young World: Trial of Power in Peru , August 21, 2008.
  82. El Comercio, Lima 26/9/2017, article by Marcela Mendoza Riofrío, “Producción de petróleo se redujo un 44% en los últimos diez años "
  83. According to figures from Laub & Quijandría (source PERUPETRO, figures from 2017 only cover production until July 2017) El Comercio , Lima 26/9/2017, article by Marcela Mendoza Riofrío, "Producción de petróleo se redujo un 44% en los últimos diez años"
  84. Industria acumula una caída de -6.7% en los últimos tres años Redacción EC March 6th 2017 - 03:59 pm, study by the Asociación Peruana de la Industria del Plástico (Apiplast). Corrected a typo for 2014.
  85. - El Comercio 25/11/2016
  86. Marcela Mendoza Riofrío 18.05.2017 04:38 pm
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  88. El Comercio, Lima February 23, 2017, pages 16, 17
  89. Industria acumula una caída de -6.7% en los últimos tres años Redacción EC March 6, 2017 - 03:59 pm, study by the Asociación Peruana de la Industria del Plástico (Apiplast). Corrected a typo for 2014.
  90. Revista 17, Autumn 2014, Harvard Review of Latin America; REVISTA.DRCLAS.HARVARD.EDU page 17/18, refers to an unpublished study by Michael E. Porter, Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo, Adolfo Chiri and Christian Ketels, 2011 "Peru: A Strategy for Sustaining Growth and Prosperity"
  91. El Comercio article "La competencia afecta a la industria farmacéutica peruana" from May 27, 2019 -
  92. El Comercio, Lima March 2, 2017, pages 16, 17
  93. Redacción EC May 21, 2017.
  94. Article “Exportaciones con valor agregado baten récords” El Comercio August 14, 2018
  95. Article by Marcela Mendoza Riofrío "Oferta textil local sigue sin revertir tendencia decreciente"
  96. Revista 17, Autumn 2014, Harvard Review of Latin America; REVISTA.DRCLAS.HARVARD.EDU page 17/18, refers to an unpublished study by Michael E. Porter, Jorge Ramirez-Vallejo, Adolfo Chiri and Christian Ketels, 2011 "Peru: A Strategy for Sustaining Growth and Prosperity"
  97. El Comercio article "Las empresas de servicios, sus sustos y sinsabores del 2018" of December 24, 2018 Juan Saldarriaga
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  99. June 27, 2017, , figures from 2016, list "Perú: The Top 10,000 Companies".
  100. January 9, 2018 article “Moody's respalda emisión de Interbank en mercado internacional”
  101. Article Cooperativas de ahorro y crédito registran más de S / 8,500 millones en depósitos, September 26, 2017 -noticia-461069
  102. September 28, 2017 Source Asociación de Bancos del Perú (Asbanc)
  103. Article "Asbanc: cobertura de riesgo de la banca peruana destaca en América Latina" August 7, 2017
  104. Article Redefiniendo la transformación digital en el sector banca y finanzas by Carlos Hurtado de Mendoza, December 25, 2018 591037
  105. a b EY: Retail Peru es el que más crece en la región. In: October 30, 2017, Retrieved August 9, 2018 (Spanish).
  106. Ventas del sector retail superaron S / 3,200 mls. en mayo por Rusia 2018. In: August 7, 2018, Retrieved August 10, 2018 (Spanish).
  107. Iquitos - the strangest city of all . January 1, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  108. ^ El turismo es el tercer generador de divisas del Perú . June 18, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  109. Oscar Paz Campuzano, EL Comercio, Digesa advierte a bañistas que 45 playas del litoral se encuentran contaminadas, 30 de diciembre del 2014 p A.12.
  110. 8/5/2017, 19:23 cited Instituto de Economía y Desarrollo Empresarial de la Cámara de Comercio de Lima (CCL) ...
  111. El Comercio, March 5, 2010, page b9 (Appendix Negocios / Economia).