List of the Dukes of Normandy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The list of the Dukes of Normandy contains all medieval rulers of the historic French Duchy of Normandy from its creation in 911 to its integration into the French crown domain in 1204, as well as the princes of the royal house apanaged with it.

The coat of arms of Normandy known since the late 12th century.

The list of dukes begins with the Viking leader Rollo , who baptized himself in 911 and was given by King Charles III. was assigned as a fief to the simple land on the lower reaches of the Seine around Rouen . However, it is not possible to clearly determine which titles the first two Norman princes had, as no contemporary documents have been preserved for them. However, they were retrospectively referred to as dukes by medieval historians . In the two documents issued to him (968, 990), Richard I. Fear is given different titles as margrave (marchio), prince of the Normans (princeps Normannorum) and as count (comes) . The cartular of the Abbey of Saint-Père-en-Vallée near Chartres already names him Duke (dux), but this title (Normannorum dux), among many others, was first given to him in the document traffic of his son Richard II the Good official use. From then on, the title of duke remained in use on an equal footing with others until 1204. In documents issued by the chancellery of the French kings, the Norman princes were almost exclusively referred to as counts.

List of the Dukes of Normandy

Norman Dynasty ( Rollonids )

image Name alternative names (life data)

Reign relationship Remarks
RolloA.jpg Rollo
(*?; † 931/932)
911-931 / 932 Leader of a Norman army that plundered through the north of the West Franconian Regnum and was defeated in July 911 near Chartres by a coalition under Robert von Neustria , Richard the Lord of Justice and Ebalus Manzer . Then he was in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte by King Charles III. assigned to the simple the land around Rouen, around which Normandy arose.
Vilda.jpg Wilhelm I. long sword
Vilhjálmr Langaspjót
(*? - † December 17, 942)
931 / 932-942 Son of the predecessor
Richard I, Duke of Normandy.jpg Richard I the Fearless
Richard Sans-Peur
(* around 935; † November 20, 996)
942-996 Son of the predecessor Took part in the power struggle between the Carolingians and Capetians and took King Ludwig IV prisoner. Was patron of the young Hugo Capet , whose election as king he supported in 987.
Richard2Nrom.jpg Richard II the good
Richard le Bon
(*?; † 1026)
996-1026 Son of the predecessor
Richard III
(* around 1001 - † August 6, 1027)
1026-1027 Son of the predecessor
Robert I the Magnificent
Robert le Magnifique
(*?; † July 22, 1035)
1027-1035 Brother of the predecessor
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.8v (William I) .jpg Wilhelm II the Bastard / the Conqueror
Guillaume le Bâtard
Guillaume le Conquérant
(* 1027/28; † September 9, 1087)
1035-1087 illegitimate son of the predecessor With the support of King Henry I, he prevailed in tough battles against competitors. Established a tightly run and centralized court administration and successfully emancipated himself from the sovereignty of the French king. Claimed the succession of Edward the Confessor to the English throne, led the invasion of the British Isles (William the Conqueror) in 1066 and defeated his rival Harald II in the Battle of Hastings . Subsequently, he subjugated the Anglo-Saxon kingdom and founded the "Anglo-Norman Rich".
Tinchebray Courteheuse 1054-1134.jpg Robert II shorts
Robert Courteheuse
(* 1051/52; † 1134)
1087-1106 Son of the predecessor Rebelated against his father, whereupon he was denied the succession to the English throne, but as the eldest son was able to take over the Norman duchy. Took part in the first crusade from 1096 to 1100 , for which he transferred the government in Normandy to his brother, King Wilhelm II Rufus , in his absence . After his return he was defeated in the power struggle for the English throne against his youngest brother Heinrich Beauclerc. From this he was finally defeated in the battle of Tinchebray 1106 and taken into captivity, in which he spent the last years of his life.
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.8v (Henry I) .jpg Heinrich I. Beauclerc
Henri Beauclerc
(* around 1068 - † December 1, 1135)
1106-1135 Brother of the predecessor Unified his father's empire in 1106 and defended it against the claims of his nephew Wilhelm Clito . Defeated him and the King of France in 1119 at the Battle of Brémule .
Wilhelm Ætheling
(* around 1103; † November 25, 1120)
1120 Son of Heinrich I. Designated heir from his father. In the course of a contractual settlement between the father and the French king, William Ætheling paid homage to King Ludwig VI in 1120 . "Just as Rollo once swore to Charles III." Shortly afterwards he died in the sinking of the white ship , whereupon Heinrich appointed his daughter Matilda "the empress" as heiress.
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.8v (Stephen) .jpg Stephan
Étienne de Blois
(* 1097 - 25 October 1154)
1135-1144 Nephew of the predecessor Usurped the Anglo-Norman throne against his cousin Matilda, triggering a civil war (the Anarchy) . In 1144, Normandy was conquered by Matilda's husband.

Angevin Dynasty ( Plantagenet )

image Name alternative names (life data)

Reign relationship Remarks
Geoffrey of Anjou Monument.jpg Gottfried Plantagenet
(* August 24, 1113; † September 7, 1151)
1144-1150 Husband of Matilda Count of Anjou. Conquered Normandy during the war against Stephen and was recognized as a duke by the Norman greats. Left the duchy to his son in 1150.
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.9 (Henry II) .jpg Henry II short coat
Henri Court-manteau
(March 5, 1133 - July 6, 1189)
1150-1189 Son of the predecessor Recognized as Duke by paying homage to King Ludwig VII in the summer of 1151. Founded the " Angevin Empire " through his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine . Was in constant battle against his sons and the French king.
Henry the Younger
Henri le jeune roi
(February 28, 1155 - June 11, 1183)
1160-1183 Son of Heinrich II. With the consent of the father, paid homage to Louis VII as Duke of Normandy in 1160, without the father having any real power. 1170 crowned co-king of the father in England. Died in revolt against this.
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.9 (Richard I) .jpg Richard IV. The Lionheart
Richard Cœur de Lion
(8 September 1157 - 6 April 1199)
1189-1199 Son of the predecessor Already paid homage to King Philip II August for Normandy in 1188 , but was only able to take over rule after his father's death. Led the third crusade (1190-1192) and was captured by the Roman-German emperor. Subsequently he successfully asserted himself against the French king in the battle for his continental possessions. Died subjugating one of his vassals.
BL MS Royal 14 C VII f.9 (John) .jpg Johann Ohneland
Jean sans Terre
(* December 24, 1167 - † October 19, 1216)
1199-1204 Brother of the predecessor The Angevin Empire collapsed under him. In a court judgment he was declared forfeit of all his possessions in France by Philip II August. On June 1, 1204, Rouen surrendered, into which the French king moved a little later and completed the unification of Normandy with the royal domain. Johann Ohneland accepted this loss in the Thouars Armistice Treaty of October 13, 1206.
End of the Anglo-Norman personal union after 138 years through the union of Normandy with the French crown domain in June 1204. In the Treaty of Paris (1259) King Henry III. of England a definitive renunciation of inheritance to Normandy.

Apanaged dukes from a royal house

image Name alternative names (life data)

Reign relationship Remarks
JeanIIdFrance.jpg John the Good
Jean le Bon
(April 16, 1319 - April 8, 1364)
1332-1350 Son of King Philip VI. In 1350 he ascended the French throne as John II.
Karel V van Frankrijk.jpg Charles the Wise
Charles le Sage
(January 21, 1338 - September 16, 1380)
1355-1364 Son of King John II. In 1364 he ascended the French throne as Charles V.
Between 1418 and 1450, Normandy was occupied by England, whose kings claimed the French throne. (see Hundred Years War )
Blason Charles de France (1446-1472) duc de Normandie.svg Charles of Valois
(December 28, 1446 - May 24, 1472)
1465-1469 Son of King Charles VII. In 1469 traded Normandy for Guyenne.
Final union of Normandy with the Crown Domain.

further use of the title:

Duke of Normandy

William the Conqueror established a personal union between Normandy and England in 1066, which is known today as the "Anglo-Norman Empire" and which was expanded in 1153 to the " Angevin Empire " of the Plantagenets. This union was ended in 1204 by King Philip II Augustus of France by occupying Normandy. Of the old duchy, only the Norman Channel Islands remained in the possession of the English / British monarchs, who still use the title "Duke of Normandy" in their titles because of them.


  • Reginald L. Poole: Henry II, Duke of Normandy , in: The English Historical Review Vol. 42 (1927), 569-572
  • Walther Kienast: The title of duke in France and Germany (9th to 12th centuries) , in: Historische Zeitschrift Vol. 203 (1966), pp. 532-580
  • C. Warren Hollister: Normandy, France and the Anglo-Norman "Regnum" , in: Speculum 51 (1976), pp. 202-242

Individual evidence

  1. "... tandem conventum fuit et Willelmus filius Henrici Regis Anglorum Normanniam teneret de Rege Franciae, et hommagium sibi faceret, sicut blind primus Normanniæ Dux jure perpetuo promiserat." See Ex anonymi Blandiniensis Appendicula ad Sigibertum in: Recueil des Historiens of Gaules et de la France 14 (1877), p. 16. See Hollister, p. 226.
  2. Rigord , Gesta Philippi Augusti , ed. in: Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France 17 (1878), p. 60
  3. Henry III. of England had already agreed to this condition on May 8, 1258. See Calendar of Patent Rolls 1247-1258 (CPR) , p. 663.