Galician Germans

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Galicia-German language islands, map from 1880
German settlements in Galicia, 1913

Galicia Germans were settlers of German origin in Galicia in the Habsburg Monarchy from 1774 and in the Second Polish Republic from 1919 to 1939.


First settlement in the Kingdom of Poland

Around 1750, Silesian cloth weavers were settled in Zaleszczyki by Prince Stanisław Poniatowski .

Settlements since 1774

Settlement of the Josephine colonization in Gołkowice Dolne (German Golkowitz)
Former Evangelical Cemetery in Brusno (Brutzen)

Immediately after the first partition of Poland, around 1774, the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa had the first craftsmen from the German Empire settle in Lemberg . After the Empress' death in 1780, the actual colonization of the country, named after him, began under Emperor Joseph II .

With the settlement patent from 1781, the conditions for the settlement of farmers and craftsmen from the German Empire were set. This mainly concerned the allocation of the land and the granting of a multi-year tax exemption. The tolerance patent of Joseph II of 1781 made it possible for people of different faiths to settle in Catholic Austria for the first time. This explains the high proportion of Protestant Christians among the settlers in Galicia.

Origin of the settlers

As a result, many people of Protestant refugee origins moved to Galicia from the Palatinate and Baden region after the edict of Fontainebleau was established . Among them were also radical Reformation Mennonites who lived in several settlements near Lemberg in Galicia: initially in three settlements: Einsiedel (18 families), Falkenstein (7 families) and Rosenberg (3 families). Later the settlements were established: Neuhof alias Weissmanówka (1830), Kiernica (1848), Horożanna (1850), Mostki (1854), Wiszenka (1862), Ehrenfeld-Błyszczywody (1864), Trościaniec in the Jaworów district (1870), Dobrowlany (1871 ), Lipowce (1872), Podusilna (1872). In the years 1880–1883, 73 Mennonite families emigrated to North America. In 1909 the Mennonites formed the first and only Mennonite community in Lemberg-Kiernica .

The emperor's recruiters concentrated their efforts particularly on the Palatinate and the Saarland , because this was an area in the German Empire that was particularly impoverished by frequent wars with neighboring France. This explains why most of the farmers and craftsmen who immigrated to Galicia between 1782 and 1785 spoke the Palatinate dialect. Those settlers who came from other parts of the German Empire formed a minority in their new homeland and their dialect was not able to assert themselves in the following generations.

In the emigration movement of the 18th century, the Oberamt Winnweiler , located as an enclave in the Palatinate but belonging to Upper Austria, played a very special role. Many Galician Germans either came directly from the villages of the Oberamt or at least let themselves be recruited there - coming from other areas in the Palatinate. In this context, a special recruiting center for emigrants from Galicia was set up in Winnweiler around 1781.

Most of the people of the Palatinate first moved up the Rhine to Speyer and then between the Black Forest and the Odenwald to Ulm. From Ulm one drove on the Danube in the so-called Ulmer Schachteln to Vienna. The Ulmer Schachteln were cheaply made boats that only went in one direction down the Danube, because they were sold as firewood at the end of their voyage.

From Vienna the journey continued by land. Large groups of horse-drawn carts were taken via Brno , Olomouc , Mährisch Neustadt , Bielitz to Krakow and from there to their destinations.

First settlements

The settlement lists of the Austrian authorities between 1782 and 1785 show that 3,216 families with 14,669 people moved to Galicia during this period. The establishment of the courtyards for the settlers could not keep up with this onslaught, so that from 1785 the number of resettlers was limited because the people waiting in the camps for their settlement had to be distributed to the courtyards first. This lasted until 1789 and longer. But in 1790 Emperor Joseph II died and the so-called Josephine colonization ended .

A second wave of immigration under Emperor Franz led far fewer people to Galicia.

From 1790 onwards, Polish landlords also began to be interested in accepting settlers, because they had meanwhile recognized the benefits of German and Bohemian settlers for agriculture. This resulted in a large number of private foundations east of the Josephinian settlement border. Settlers were brought into the country, received jungle for clearing in exchange for a certain fee, and were allowed to use the land obtained in this way as their property for agriculture.

In 1804 a separate Protestant superintendent was formed for Galicia .

Wave of immigration in 1810

After 1810 there was a third wave of smaller immigration from the Catholic Egerland , which resulted in the places Machliniec and Mariahilf , among others . In the period between 1811 and 1848, private landlords increasingly settled farmers and forest workers from Bohemia. After a plague or cholera epidemic in the area around Smorze, the landlord Karl von Seif also promoted settlers in Bohemia in 1835. These new villages got their name from their founder, Karl von Seif, who named the new municipalities Felitzerhal (son Felix), Annaberg (wife Anna), both founded in 1835 and Karlsdorf (Karl) founded in 1838, after his family members and himself.

Emigration to America at the end of the 19th century

Since the end of the 19th century, a total of about 27,000 Galician Germans emigrated to America. As a result, German settlements disappeared, and in other places the Germans became a minority due to the influx of Ukrainians and Poles. German schools and churches had to be closed. For this purpose, more Galicia Germans moved to West Prussia and Posen at the recruitment of the Prussian government.

In 1900 there were around 80,000 German Christians in Galicia. The rest of the information about German-speaking residents in the census (over 212,000) were generally Yiddish-speaking Jews - Yiddish was considered a German dialect in Austria-Hungary and its speakers were counted as German according to established national policy - with the exception of westernmost Galicia, especially Biała Krakowska , where the Jews actually often spoke Standard German.

To counter this emigration, Pastor Theodor Zöckler founded the Union of Christian Germans in Galicia together with Protestant and Catholic Germans in 1907 . The German People's Council for Galicia should represent the interests of the Austrian authorities. In 1914 the Union of Christian Germans in Galicia was active in 108 local groups.

In the Second Polish Republic

Since 1920 Galicia belonged to the newly founded Second Polish Republic . The situation of the Galician Germans worsened in the following years due to pressure from the Polish authorities. In 1923 the Union of Christian Germans was banned in Galicia . The most important representative of the Galicia Germans remained Superintendent Theodor Zöckler as head of the Evangelical Church A. and HB in Lesser Poland .

Relocation in 1939

most generous resettlement campaign in world history , propaganda poster for the colonization of the Warthegau
Galicia-German resettlers, Heinrich Himmler on the right , near Przemyśl (1940).

After the occupation of Galicia by Soviet troops, most of the Galician Germans were resettled to the German Reich at the end of 1939.

About 80% of the resettlers from Galicia and Volhynia were brought on the Soviet side in railroad trains to the German border. Camps were set up at the border crossings in order to transport the resettlers who arrived irregularly and without prior notice to the German Reich. In order to prevent the camps from becoming overcrowded at the border of interests, the resettlers were concentrated in reception camps in Łódź , Pabianice , Zgierz and Kalisch and then divided into four (actually five) race evaluation groups. A small part of the resettlers were resettled in the German Reich (race evaluation group IV) and a large part in the area around Łódź. Under the pressure of the circumstances, a total of 54,095 Galician Germans emigrated, most of them settling in the new Reichsgau Wartheland .

After 1945

In 1946 Pastor Zöckler founded the Aid Committee of the Galician Germans A. u. HB in the Diakonisches Werk der EKD e. V. in Stade. The association granted help to the Galician German refugees if they were in need. “Initially, the tasks were pastoral, material and cultural care of the refugees scattered all over Germany. B. Visiting service, family reunification, help with accommodation, advice on the intention to emigrate, etc. "


Most of the Galician Germans spoke Palatine and Swabian dialects. The Galician German dialects were recorded and described in the Palatinate dictionary .

Galicia German places

Due to the division of Galicia to the present-day countries Poland and Ukraine, the places are shown here according to their current national affiliation.


Biala and Saybusch area

At the time of the emergence of Galicia there was already a German population in the west, in the vicinity of Biała ( Lipnik , Hałcnów , Komorowice , Wilamowice ). Later some German colonies emerged in the Saybuscher Beskids , especially Żabnica . German minorities also had seineywiec and today's districts of Zabłocie and Sporysz .

Neu Sandez area

Some colonies around Neu Sandez (1797)

The colonies of Sandez were founded in the course of the Josephinian colonization on the estate of Alt Sandez . By 1789, a total of 235 German families had settled in the area of ​​Nowy Sącz. They were usually small and were largely Polonized, especially after 1860, but in 1921 over 500 people in the powiat Nowosądecki reported German nationality (most 124 in Dąbrówka Niemiecka ). The Protestants (in 1921 there were almost 1,400 of them, mostly of German origin) had two parishes in Stadła and Nowy Sącz . A Josephinian colony, based on the Gołkowice Dolne model and with the wooden church from Stadła, was reconstructed in the open-air museum in Falkowa .

  • Barcice Niemieckie (German Bartschitz) , founded 1787, Catholic.
  • Biczyce Niemieckie (German Bischitz) , founded 1788, Lutheran.
  • Biegonice (Laufendorf) , now a district of Nowy Sącz , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Chełmiec (Hundsdorf) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Dąbrówka Niemiecka (New / German Dąbrówka) , now a district of Nowy Sącz, founded in 1787, Lutheran.
  • Gaboń Niemiecki (German Gaben) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Reformed.
  • Gołkowice Niemieckie (German Golkowitz) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Gaj (Hutweide) , a hamlet of Świniarsko , founded in 1784, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Juraszowa (Jörgenau) .
  • Kadcza (Kadschau) , founded in 1785, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Łącko (Wiesendorf) , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Mokra Wieś (Nassendorf) , founded in 1788, Lutheran.
  • Morawina (Morau) , a hamlet of Moszczenica Niżna , founded in 1784, mixed Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Mystków (Müstkau) , founded in 1788, Catholic.
  • Naszacowice (Naschatowitz) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Olszanka (Ollschau) , founded in 1784, reformed.
  • Piątkowa , founded in 1788, Lutheran.
  • Podegrodzie (Zaundorf) , founded 1784, Lutheran.
  • Podrzecze (Unterbach) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Rytro , founded in 1788, Lutheran.
  • Stadła (Stadlau) , founded in 1788, Lutheran.
  • Podmajerz (Neudörfel or Mayersdörfel) founded in 1784, on the grounds of the Vorwerk in Stary Sącz , mixed Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Strzeszyce (Wachendorf) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Szczereż (Ernsdorf) , founded in 1784, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Świerkla (Tannendorf) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Świniarsko (Schweinsanger) , founded in 1788, Lutheran.
  • Zagorzyn , founded in 1788, Catholic.
  • Żbikowice (Bikowitz) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Stara Wieś (weaver), now a hamlet of Tęgoborze .

Salzberg area

The colonies near Salzberg were founded in the course of the Josephine colonization on chamber property of the city of Niepołomice . The Protestants had a parish in Gawłów Nowy (New Gablau) and two Protestant schools (in Gawłów and Bogucicie).

  • Bogucice (Boguschitz) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran reformed.
  • Bratucice (Bartutschitz) , founded 1783, Catholic.
  • Chodenice (Trinitatis) , now a district of Bochnia, founded in 1785, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Gawłów Nowy (New Gablau) , founded in 1784, mixed Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Kłaj (Klay) , founded in 1784, Lutheran.
  • Krzeczów , founded in 1783, Lutheran.
  • Książnice (Fürstenau) , founded in 1783, Lutheran.
  • Lednica Niemiecka (German Lednitz) , founded 1784, Lutheran.
  • Majkowice Nowe (Neu Maykowitz) , founded in 1784, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Niepołomice (Niepolomitz, Heidenau) , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Kamionna (Steindorf) , founded in 1785, mixed Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Wójtostwo (Vogtsdorf) , now a district of Bochnia, founded in 1785, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.

Sandomierz and Leżajsk region

Some colonies around Mielec (1797)
A house of the German colonists in Raniżów / ​​Ranischau

The colonies between the Vistula and the San were founded in the course of the Josephine colonization on manors from Sandomierz and Leżajsk . The colonies around Mielec created the informal colony community Padew . The Protestants had a parish in Raniżów (Ranischau) with a branch in Nowy Kamień (Steinau) . The parish in Sarnów (Reichsheim) was moved to Czermin (Hohenbach) in 1867 . There was also a parish of Swiss descent in Königsberg .


  • Czermin (Hohenbach) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Goleszów (Goleschau) , founded in 1853.
  • Jata Kolonia (Jattau) , founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Kameralne on the grounds of Jeżowe , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Józefów (Josephsdorf) , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Kliszów , founded in 1784, Catholic.
  • Ostrowy Tuszowskie Kolonia (Sandlauter or German Ostrau) , founded 1783, Catholic.
  • Padew Kolonia (originally Fallbrunn ), founded in 1783, Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Raniżów ( Ranischau , originally Meinhof ), founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Kurzyna Wielka (Groß Rauchersdorf) , founded 1783, Catholic.
  • Kurzyna Średnia (Rauchersdorf) , on the grounds of Kurzyna Mała (Klein Rauchersdorf) , founded in 1783, Catholic-Lutheran.
  • Sarnów (Reichsheim) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Orłów (Schönanger) , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Nowy Kamień (Steinau) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Tuszów Kolonia ( Tuszow , originally Bruskenheim ), founded in 1783, mixed Catholic-Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Nowy Dzikowiec (Wildenthal) , founded 1783, Catholic.
  • Wólka Tanewska (Tanefsau) , founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Przebendów (Preppendorf) , founded in 1852.
  • Wola Pławska (Weizenbach / Weizenbring) , founded in 1942 by settlers from Ranischau and Wildenthal.
  • Sulechów (Sulichow) , founded in 1818
  • Hüttenwald or Hüttendorf , in Polish Buda, a small settlement of German Fortswirte west of Huta Komorowska


Lubaczów region

The colonies were founded in the course of Josephine colonization on the Lubaczów estate . The Protestants had a parish in Podlesie (Reichau) .

In the Lubaczów region, now in Ukraine:

  • Dziewięcierz (Einsingen) , founded in 1783, Lutheran.
  • Lipowiec (Lindenau) , founded in 1783, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Smolin Kolonia, founded in 1783, Lutheran.

Dobromyl region

The colonies on the Dobromil estate next to Ustrzyki Dolne were comparatively large. The colonists mostly came from the Palatinate . The Protestants had a parish in Bandrów Kolonia (German Bandrow Hochwald) .

In the Dobromyl region, now in Ukraine:

  • Engelsbrunn (now part of Dobromyl ).
  • Prinzenthal , on the grounds of Smereczna , founded in 1784, mixed Lutheran-Reformed.
  • Roschewe (Rosenburg) , on the ground of Pietnice, founded in 1783, Catholic.


Language islands in the Lemberg area (map from 1855)
Tribal settlements
  • Annaberg (Ukrainian Нагірне / Nahirne ), founded in 1835.
  • Beckersdorf (today part of Новосілка / Nowosilka ) founded in 1784.
  • Brigidau (Ukrainian Ланівка / Laniwka ), founded in 1783.
  • Bruckenthal (now part of Хлівчани / Chliwtschany ) founded in 1786.
  • Brundorf (now part of Керниця / Kernyzja ) founded in 1788.
  • Burgthalschenke (today part of Галичани / Halytschany ) founded 1788th
  • German Smolin (Ukrainian Смолин / Smolin ), founded in 1783.
  • Dornfeld (Ukrainian Тернопілля / Ternopillja ), founded in 1786.
  • Ebenau (today part of Стоділки / Stodilky ) founded in 1786.
  • Einsingen (today part of Дев'ятир / Dewjatyr ) founded in 1783.
  • Einsiedel (Ukrainian Одиноке / Odynoke ), Mennonite settlement - founded in 1786.
  • Engelsbrunn (now part of Dobromyl ), founded in 1783.
  • Falkenstein (Ukrainian Соколівка / Sokoliwka ), Mennonite settlement - founded in 1784.
  • Gelsendorf (Ukrainian Загірне / Sahirne ), founded in 1784.
  • Gassendorf (today part of Уличне / Ulytschne ), founded in 1784.
  • Hartfeld (today part of Речичани / Retschytschany ) founded in 1783.
  • Josefow (Ukrainian Йосипівка / Jossypiwka ), founded in 1783.
  • Josefsberg (Ukrainian Коросниця / Korosnyzja ), founded in 1785.
  • Kaiserdorf (Ukrainian Калинів / Kalyniw ), founded in 1783.
  • Königsau (Ukrainian Рівне / Riwne ), founded in 1783.
  • Loyal to the country (Ukrainian Зелений Яр / Selenyj Jar ), founded in 1783.
  • Lindenau (today part of Липовець / Lypowez ), founded in 1783.
  • Lindenfeld (Ukrainian Липівка / Lypiwka ), founded in 1784.
  • Machliniec (Ukrainian Махлинець / Machlynez ), founded in 1823.
  • Mariahilf (today part of Kolomyja ), founded in 1811.
  • Mierau (Polish Mierów ) founded in 1785 and destroyed in World War II; Located between Wuslowe ( Вузлове ) and Dmytriw ( Дмитрів ).
  • Mokrotin Colony (Ukrainian Widrodschennja / Відродження ), founded in 1786.
  • Moosberg (today part of Підлуби / Pidluby ), founded in 1785.
  • Münchenthal (Ukrainian Мужиловичі / Muschylowytschi ), founded in 1783.
  • Neudorf (Ukrainian Нове Село / Nowe Selo ), founded in 1783.
  • New Khrusno (today part of Хоросно / Chorosno ), founded in 1789.
  • New Oleksice (now part of Олексичі / Oleksytschi ), founded in 1786.
  • Prinzenthal (today part of Терло / Terlo ), founded in 1784.
  • Rehberg (Polish: Pyszówka , destroyed; south of Sarny / Сарни), founded in 1788.
  • Reichenbach (now part of Красів / Krassiw ), founded in 1784.
  • Rosenberg (today part of Щирець / Schtschyrez ), Mennonite settlement - founded in 1786.
  • Rosenburg (Ukrainian Рожеве / Roschewe ), founded in 1783, Catholic.
  • Rottenhan (now part of Поріччя / Poritschtschja ), founded in 1785.
  • Schönthal (Ukrainian Карачинів / Karatschyniw ), founded in 1785th
  • Ottenhausen (Ukrainian Затока / Satoka ), founded in 1786.
  • Ugartsberg (Polish Wypuczki , Ukrainian Випучки / Wyputschky ) founded in 1785 and destroyed in the Second World War; located west of Hirske / Гірське
  • Ugartsthal (today part of Сівка-Калуська / Siwka-Kaluska ), founded in 1785.
  • Unterwalden (today part of Підгайчики / Pidhajtschyk ), founded in 1784.
  • Weißenberg (today part of Добростани / Dobrostany ), founded in 1784.
  • Wiesenberg (today part of Мервичі / Merwytschi near Kulykiw , 15 km north of Lemberg), founded in 1786.
German settlement in an existing Slavic settlement
Further settlements with Germans
  • Felicienthal (Ukrainian Долинівка / Dolyniwka ), founded in 1835.
  • Ehrental (Ukrainian Чистопілля / Tschystopillja )
  • Deutsch-Lany (Ukrainian Забужжя / Sabuschschja bei Kamjanka-Buska ), founded in 1804.
  • Jagonia (Ukrainian Ягідня / Jahidnja bei Kamjanka-Buska ), founded in 1804.
  • Sapieżanka (Ukrainian Сапіжанка / Sapischanka bei Kamjanka-Buska ), founded in 1804.
  • Rehdorf (Ukrainian Сарнівка / Sarniwka), founded in 1883.
  • Sygniówka (today Сигнівка / Syhniwka in the western urban area of Lviv )
  • Kornelówka (Ukrainian Корнелівка / Korneliwka), founded in 1820.
  • Neudorf (Ukrainian Нове Село / Nowe Selo)
  • Ludwikówka (Ukrainian Мислівка / Mysliwka), founded in 1832.
  • Krzywolanka (today a district in the south of Kamjanka-Buska )
  • Karlsdorf (today part of Klymez ), founded in 1835.
  • Bredtheim (today part of Сідлище / Sidlyschtsche ), founded in 1881.
  • Mikulsdorf (now part of Otynija ), founded in 1848.
  • Rudolfsdorf (Ukrainian Стецівка / Steziwka )
  • Augustdorf (today part of Snjatyn ), founded in 1836.
  • Neutitschein (Polish from 1919 Nowy Tyczyn , destroyed after 1945, west of Pantalycha / Панталиха)
  • Mallmannsthal or Malmanstal, founded around 1820, south of Majdan / Майдан
  • Theodorshof (Ukrainian Високофедорівка / Wyssokofedoriwka ), founded in 1824.
  • Bronisławówka and Kazimirówka (now part of Pluhiw ), founded in 1836.
  • Neuhof alias Weismanówka (Ukrainian Залужани / Saluschany )
  • Kleindorf (today part of Молошковичі / Moloschkowytschi )
  • Sitauerówka (Ukrainian Нова Липівка / Nowa Lypiwka ), founded in 1838
  • Diamantheim (Ukrainian Широке Поле, today a district of Welyka Turja ), founded in 1901
  • Bredtheim (today a district of Sidlyschtsche ), founded in 1881
  • Konstantynówka and Mogiła (today districts of Hostiw )
  • Neudorf (today part of Strupkiw ), founded in 1842
  • Heinrichsdorf (today part of Suschno )
  • Heinrichsdorf, Bóbrka district , founded in 1842
  • Ehrenfeld, Mennonite settlement, today Tschystopillja (Schowkwa) , 1864


  • Isabel Röskau-Rydel: German history in Eastern Europe - Galicia , ISBN 3-88680-206-X , Siedler Verlag, Berlin 1999.
  • Sepp Müller: Literature about Galicia and its Germanness. Marburg 1962.
  • Julius Krämer: Our vocabulary. Dictionary of the Galician Palatinate and Swabians. Verl. D. Aid Committee of the Galician Germans, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1979.
  • Fritz Seefeldt: Source book on the German settlement in Galicia under Emperor Joseph II. Plauen 1935, new edition Berlin 1990.
  • Maria Schuster: Königsau. A village in Galicia through the ages. Würzburg 2012.
  • Artur Bachmann: From the Warsaw Treatise 1768 to the Protestant Patent 1861 . Martin Opitz Library 2012.
  • Raimund Friedrich Kaindl : History of the Germans in the Carpathian countries . Gotha: FA Perthes, 1911 ( online ).
  • Henryk Lepucki: Działalność kolonizacyjna Marii Teresy i Józefa II w Galicji 1772–1790: z 9 tablicami i mapą . Kasa im. J. Mianowskiego, Lwów 1938 (Polish, online ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ H. Pauls and Cornelius Krahn: Galicia (Poland & Ukraine) . In: Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
  2. On emigration from the Oberamt Winnweiler
  3. Grzegorz Smólski: Kolonie i stosunki niemieckie w Galicyi , 1910, p. 6 (Polish)
  4. ^ Theodor Zöckler culture portal west-east
  5. ^ German settlements in Galizien 1913 , Lemberg, Verlag des Bund der Christian Deutschen in Galizien; Cartography Establishment G. Freytag & Berndt;
  6. In the German-Soviet border and friendship treaty of September 28, 1939, the resettlement of Germans from the areas claimed by the Soviet Union was regulated in a secret additional protocol. On November 3, 1939, the contract for the resettlement of the Germans from East Galicia, Volhynia and the Narew region was concluded. The German goal was to concentrate all ethnic Germans in areas in the Greater German Reich and to promote the Germanization of the formerly Polish provinces of West Prussia , Wartheland and the south-east Prussian and Upper Silesian areas, which were incorporated into the Reich .
  7. Nazi race evaluation groups:
    • Volksliste I: “Confession Germans” who campaigned for “German Volkstum” before the war (Volksdeutsche).
    • Volksliste II: People of German origin whose families had clung to the German language and culture.
    • Volksliste III: in the sense of Nazi policy, upon revocation, “people capable of Germanization” (Germanized).
    • People's list IV: according to the “Rassegutachten” after re-education in the “Old Reich”, “protection members” (re-Germanized) capable of Germanization.
    • Volksliste V: Unable to Germanize (deportation to the Generalgouvernement)
  8. Erich Müller: 1939/41 - Resettlement of the scattered East German ethnic groups in the newly founded Reichsgaue. PDF, accessed 8 November 2015. Responsible for resettlement under the propaganda term Heim ins Reich was the popular German central location .
  9. Dieter Schenk : The Lviv Professors Murder and the Holocaust in East Galicia. Dietz, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-8012-5033-1 , p. 56.
    Erich Müller: 1939/41 - resettlement of the scattered East German ethnic groups in the newly founded Reichsgaue. (PDF 232 kB)
  10. ^ Convention of the former Protestant Eastern Churches: Aid Committee of the Galician Germans
  11. Colony Józefa (PDF) (Polish)
  12. Główny Urząd Statystyczny: Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Województwo krakowskie i Śląsk Cieszyński . Warszawa 1925, p. 24 [PDF: 34] (Polish, Woj.krakowskie i Sląsk Cieszynski miejscowości.pdf ).