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Dili (East Timor)
Coordinates 8 ° 34 ′  S , 125 ° 34 ′  E Coordinates: 8 ° 34 ′  S , 125 ° 34 ′  E
Dili cities rivers.png
Basic data
Country East Timor

local community

height 11 m
Residents 244,584 (2015)
Metropolitan area 277,279 (2015)
founding 1520
Twin cities SpainSpain Barcelona , Spain Canberra , Australia Coimbra , Portugal Darwin , Australia Lisbon , Portugal Okinawa , Japan São Paulo , Brazil Sydney , Australia
Dawn in Dili
Dawn in Dili

Dili ( Tetum Dili , Portuguese Díli ) is the capital and economic center of East Timor . It is also the capital of the Dili municipality .


According to a legend, the place name "Dili" is derived from the Tetum word "ai-dila" for papaya . The Portuguese first heard the name of this fruit when they reached the Bay of Dili in 1520 . However, this cannot be true, since people were speaking in the Mambai region at the time . "Motaél", the Mambai word for "estuary", from which the name of today's Motael district and the former local empire are derived, is evidence of this. Tetum did not spread to Dili until the place became the colonial capital. In addition, papaya is an American fruit that first came to Southeast Asia through the Europeans. The origin of the name “Dili” seems to lie in the Bunak word “zili” ( German  “cliff” ), which describes the cliffs behind the city. This is an indication that a Papuan language such as Bunak was spoken in the region before the Austronesian languages Mambai and Tetum .

The residents of Dilis are sometimes called Karketu, which is reflected in the name of the Karketu Dili football club .


Dili is located on the north coast of the island of Timor . The city of Dili is divided into several administrative offices : Cristo Rei (East Dili), Dom Aleixo (West Dili), Nain Feto (East Dili) and Vera Cruz (Central Dili). 18 of the 26 sucos of these administrative offices are classified as “ urban ” and form Dilis districts ( bairos ). They have a population density of up to 5000 inhabitants / km² and an area of ​​0.06 to 2 km². The remaining eight sucos are considered rural.

Since November 2015 streets in the state capital have been continuously renamed in order to bring them into line with the “national character”. It started with 89 streets in the city center. Thus, from the Avenida de Portugal as from the lighthouse in Motael the Avenida de Motael and from the Avenida dos Direitos Humanos (formerly Avenida Alm. Américo Tomás ) the Avenida Nicolau Lobato and the Avenida Marginal .


Administrative division of the municipality of Dili

There is no municipal administration for the city of Dili alone. The function is taken over by the administration of the municipality of Dili, which is also responsible for neighboring, smaller towns and the island of Atauro. The district of Dili was renamed a municipality in 2015. The administration, like that of the administrative offices, is appointed by the state government. The sucos are run by an elected Chefe de Suco and an elected council. The current administrator is Gaspar Soares (as of February 2014). He was used by the state government.

Mayor Dilis, who were below the district chief (Bupati) , existed in the Portuguese colonial times and during the Indonesian occupation. The office held under the Portuguese, among others, César Mousinho , under the Indonesians José Abílio Osório Soares , Domingos Maria das Dores Soares and Mateus Maia (1996-1999).


Children in Dili

The sucos of the city of Dili, defined as urban, have 244,584 inhabitants (as of 2015). The municipality of Dili has a population of 277,279 (as of 2015), but also includes rural areas, such as the administrative offices of Atauro and Metinaro .

Dili is a melting pot of the different ethnic groups of East Timor. Young men in particular come to Dili from all over the country looking for work. Therefore, the proportion of men is significantly higher than the proportion of women. In the entire municipality of Dili, the population increased by 12.58% between 2001 and 2004. Almost 80,000 of the residents were born outside of Dilis. Only 54% of the population were born here. 7% were born in Baucau , 5% each in Viqueque and Bobonaro , 4% in Ermera , the rest in the other municipalities or abroad.

The different origins are not without problems. Especially street gangs from different parts of the country ( Loro Munu and Loro Sae ) clash again and again. The climax was the unrest in East Timor in 2006 . The reasons are different resentments between the groups, but also economic interests. So there was a conflict between Bunaks from Bobonaro and Ermera and Makasaes from Baucau and Viqueque for dominance in the market.


Dili coat of arms, 1952 to 1975

Colonial times

The Portuguese reached the Bay of Dili for the first time in 1520 and set up a small post there shortly afterwards. The small settlement was made the capital of their possessions on the Lesser Sunda Islands after the Portuguese were driven from Lifau in the west of the island by the Topasses on August 11, 1769 . On October 10, 1769, Governor António José Teles de Meneses began building the new capital. The town received city rights in January 1864.

Portugal was neutral during the Second World War. However, the Allies feared that the militarily weak Portuguese Timor could be used by the Japanese as a bridge to Australia , which is why the Dutch and Australians briefly occupied the colony in 1941. On the night of February 19-20, 1942, the Japanese attacked with 20,000 men and gradually occupied Dili the rest of Timor . On September 26, 1945, the official ceremony of the surrender of the Japanese in Portuguese Timor and the return of power to Portugal took place in Dili.

After the Carnation Revolution in 1974, the colony was supposed to be prepared for independence, but when left-wing FRETILIN dominated , street fights broke out in 1975 in Dili between it and the conservative UDT . Portugal's last governor, Mário Lemos Pires , fled to the island of Atauro off Dili, from where he tried unsuccessfully to mediate between the parties. The FRETILIN emerged victorious from the fighting, but in the meantime Indonesia had started to occupy the border region with troops disguised as UDT supporters. In view of the threat, FRETILIN hoped for international support and therefore declared East Timor independent from Portugal on November 28, 1975. Nine days later, on December 7th, Indonesian forces officially began invading the country and occupied Dili.

Indonesian occupation

September 8, 1999: Dili on fire

Under the FALINTIL boss Xanana Gusmão , the Timorese resistance began to use guerrilla tactics against the occupiers. On June 10, 1980, FALINTIL units attacked a television station on the outskirts of the capital Dili. On November 12, 1991, a massacre by the Indonesian military after a funeral in the Santa Cruz cemetery ( see: Santa Cruz Massacre ) claimed over 200 lives.

In 1999, in the context of the independence referendum on August 30, there was a final wave of violence under the Indonesian occupying power. Pro-Indonesian militias destroyed infrastructure, burned houses and displaced people. On April 17, 14 people died in a massacre in the house of the politician Manuel Carrascalão , where numerous refugees had sought refuge. After the referendum on August 30, the violence escalated again. When the results in favor of independence were published on September 4th, the militias marched through the city, pillaging and murdering. More than 50% of the houses were damaged or destroyed. On September 20, 1999, the first units of the international peacekeeping force INTERFET landed at the airport near Dili . The United Nations took over the administration of the country. On May 20, 2002, Dili finally became the capital of the independent state of East Timor.


Refugee camp in Balide 2006

On December 4, 2002, one day after a student was arrested, the house of Prime Minister Marí Alkatiri , government vehicles and Chinese traders' shops were set on fire in riots in Dili and other parts of East Timor . Five demonstrators were shot dead by the police .

At the end of April to October 2006, the worst unrest since independence rocked the capital and the country after 600 armed forces deserted due to grievances. In addition, youth gangs from the western and eastern parts of the country fought each other . Thousands of houses were burned down and at least 45 people died. Ultimately, Prime Minister Alkatiri had to resign. Even the deployment of an international intervention force could not bring about peace at first. A new United Nations police mission has been in action since September 13th. Most of Dili's residents had to seek refuge in refugee camps and churches.

On February 11, 2008, the rebel chief Alfredo Reinado led some of his men to Dili. There was a firefight in the home of President José Ramos-Horta , in which Reinado and another rebel were killed and the President and one of his bodyguards were seriously injured. Shortly thereafter, rebels attacked Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão's house and motorcade , but Gusmão escaped unharmed. A state of emergency was declared and 1,000 police officers and soldiers searched the city and the surrounding area for the perpetrators.

Important buildings

Government palace

The government palace, completed in 1960, is the seat of the Prime Minister of East Timor and the government. Its appearance is based on the buildings of Praça do Comércios , the main square in Lisbon . The government palace is not far from the shore of the bay. The street that passes the palace is the Dilis commercial center. Behind the palace is the National Parliament and the Ministry of Finance .

Presidential palace

On July 2, 2007, the foundation stone was laid for the new East Timorese presidential palace in western Dilis. The building was financed by the People's Republic of China . Previously there was a helipad of the International Stabilization Forces here . The building is called the Palace of Hope and was completed in April 2009. The inauguration took place on August 27, 2009. The central area of ​​the palace has a steep, blue roof that is based on the Timorese style. In the entrance hall of the palace there is a dinosaur exhibition with the skeleton of a Tarbosaurus bataar , a relative of the Tyrannosaurus . The skeleton was excavated in Mongolia and is on loan from Monash University to help educate school children. Often guests and new ambassadors are greeted in front of the dinosaur skeleton.

Casa Europa

The building is the former tranqueira (warehouse) of the old Portuguese fortress Dili from 1769. The warehouse itself was built in the 19th century. From 1895 it served as a barrack for the Portuguese infantry, after World War II for artillery and in the 1960s it belonged to the Companhia de Intendência , the quartermaster. After the invasion, the Indonesian military took over the building. The building was renovated between 2000 and 2002 and handed over to the European Commission in 2007. The building previously called Uma Fukun was given its new name: Casa Europa (" Europe House "). Events such as exhibitions and film screenings take place regularly in the Representation of the European Union. In 2008 the yellow Casa Europa was officially inaugurated after another renovation.

Palácio de Lahane

The Palácio de Lahane was the residence of the governor of Portuguese Timor from 1860 , one and a half kilometers south of the city center, in the mountains. The building was badly damaged in 1999, but has since been rebuilt. When the presidential palace was flooded with mud in February 2013, the Palácio de Lahane served as the temporary office of the president.

Associação Comercial Chinesa

The former building of the Associação Comercial da Comunidade Chinesa Timorense ACCCTO in Bidau Lecidere is one of the last colonial buildings from before the Second World War. Today the State Secretariat for Youth and Sport ( Portuguese Secretaria Estado da Juventude e do Desporto ) is located in the villa .

Mercado Municipal

The Mercado Municipal ( city ​​market ) is another building from the Portuguese colonial era. However, the red and white building is no longer used as a market, but is now a site for international trade fairs, the Centro de Convenções de Díli (CCD).

Liceu Dr. Francisco Machado

The Liceu Dr. Francisco Machado is a secondary school near the National Parliament. The building is in the colonial style, but was not rebuilt until 2001 after it was destroyed in 1999.

Associação Comercial, Agrícola e Industrial de Timor

The building of the Associação Comercial, Agrícola e Industrial de Timor , next to the building of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino, is an example of modern architecture .

Ministry of Finance

The Ministry of Finance in Dili

With eleven floors, the Ministry of Finance is the tallest building in East Timor to date. It was completed in 2014 by an Indonesian company and has an area of ​​20,000 square meters. The construction cost was $ 22 million. The 17-storey Timor Fortuna Center Plaza with 60,000 square meters is to be built in the west of Dilis by 2020 . The project by East Timorese and Chinese investors is expected to cost $ 70 million.

Religious buildings

Dili is the seat of the Archdiocese of Dili . Dili's most important church is the Catedral da Imaculada Conceição (Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception) in Vila Verde , the largest church in Southeast Asia. The modern building was opened in 1988 by Indonesian President Suharto and consecrated a year later by Pope John Paul II . In 2009 it was renovated. The Sé de Díli Cathedral, built in 1940, was destroyed in World War II.

The Portuguese-style Santo António de Motael Church is the oldest existing church in East Timor, although it was destroyed in World War II and had to be rebuilt in 1955. The first building dates from around 1800. The Church of the Conception of Mary in Balide dates from 1939 .

In addition to the numerous Roman Catholic churches, there are also some places of worship of other Christian denominations . In the Vila Verde district , on Rua da Catedral, opposite the Roman Catholic cathedral, there has been a church of the Assemblies of God ( Igreja Evangélica das Assembleias de Deus em Timor Leste ) with space for around 1000 believers since June 2016 . North of the cathedral on Avenida D. Ricardo da Silva (Suco Motael ) is the Igreja Hosana of the Evangelical Church of East Timor ( Igreja Protestante iha Timor Lorosa'e ), which was inaugurated in October 2014 by Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão . In March 2015, the new Igreja Ebenezer, the seat of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of East Timor ( Igreja Evangélica Presbiteriana de Timor Leste ), was inaugurated on Rua Mascarenhas Vera Cruz in Caicoli , with a bell tower that can be seen from afar.

The Annur Mosque , East Timor's largest mosque, is located in the former Arab quarter of Kampung Alor .

The Chinese Guandi Temple is located in the immediate vicinity of the government palace in Suco Gricenfor. The approximately 30 cm high Buddha statue in the temple was brought to Dili from China in 1926 and initially worshiped in a garage. In 1928 the present temple was built with the approval of the Portuguese colonial government. The Chinese cemetery, founded in 1889, is located in the west of Taibesi .

The Pura Girinatha , the only Hindu temple in the country, is located near the Taibesi market. The somewhat deserted temple was built during the time of the Indonesian occupation, probably for immigrants from Indonesia, because there was no traditional Hindu population in East Timor and even today only about 200 East Timorese call themselves Hindu.


Cristo Rei

Dili's landmark is Cristo Rei ( Chritu Rei ), the great statue of Jesus that overlooks the city from the east end of the bay. There are also various monuments, mostly from the Portuguese colonial times, but also from the time of the Indonesian occupation and the independent East Timor.


Archive & Museum of the Timorese Resistance

Archive & Museum of the Timorese Resistance

The Timorese Resistance Archive & Museum is located in the building of the former Portuguese colonial court. The first parts were opened on December 7, 2005. It shows photos, some items such as weapons and equipment and items from the time of the Indonesian occupation. Both the fight of the FALINTIL guerrillas against Indonesia and the massacres of the occupying forces are shown. In the reading room, the electronic archive can be accessed free of charge on a computer.

Arte Moris art school

With Arte Moris , East Timor's first artists' association and art school for theater and visual arts is based in Dili (Comoro district). It was founded in February 2003. Its main aim should be art as a building block in the psychological and social reconstruction of a country devastated by violence, with a special emphasis on helping its young citizens. Luca and Gabriela Gansser from Switzerland had the idea for this project . The art, paintings and sculptures created at Arte Moris are very diverse in style, but often surrealistic and show cultural aspects from the different regions of the country. Works of art can also be purchased here. The art school also has a theater company.

Xanana Reading Room

The Xanana Reading Room is a mix of museum, library and cultural center. The building was originally built in the 1960s as an Indonesian consulate. In addition to books, there are daily newspapers, photos and film material here.

Prison comarca

The former prison Comarca in Balide dates back to the Portuguese colonial times. Thousands of political prisoners were tortured here during the Indonesian occupation. The last inmates were released in September 1999. Under the administration of the UN, the abandoned building was renovated from January 2002 and from February 17, 2003 it became the seat of the Reception, Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CAVR). 65 graffiti by East Timorese artists tell of the time of the occupation. The eight solitary confinement cells were left in their original state. There is also a library and documentation center. Since the end of the work of the CAVR, the memorial has been run by the Association of Former Political Prisoners (ASSEPOL).


Climate diagram of Dili
Rainy season in Dili

Dili's climate is typical of the north coast of East Timor. In the dry season, temperatures of over 35 ° C are reached, at night the thermometer drops to 20 ° C. In the rainy season the temperature is around 27 ° C. The annual average is 26.7 ° C. Rain almost only falls in the rainy season from late November to April. Then the streets of Dilis can be under water from the rain. The average annual rainfall is 1000 mm. The wind in Dili is weakest in May with 7 km / h and strongest in August with 12 km / h.

Economy, infrastructure and transport

Dili is the most important port city in East Timor. The port is in the Motael district . A new cargo port is currently being built in the Bay of Tibar . Ferries connect Dili with the offshore island of Atauro and the East Timorese exclave Oe-Cusse Ambeno . The Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport is used by both civilian and military purposes. It is named after the East Timorese prime minister before the Indonesian occupation, later president and freedom fighter Nicolau dos Reis Lobato . Buses connect the capital with other places in the country. Better developed overland roads lead through Dili along the coast from west to east and south in the interior towards Aileu.

26.2% of the households in the municipality of Dili (with Atauro and the rural areas in the east and south) farm, 50.1% cattle (status: 2010). There is fishing on the coasts. Some rice is grown in Metinaro (1% of all households in the municipality of Dili), in the mountains there are fruit trees and in the town the inhabitants have small kitchen gardens. Of all households in the municipality, 15% grow coconut palms, 10% vegetables, 3% coffee, 17% manioc (production 2008: 1,129 t) and the same number of maize (1,885 t). The main pets people keep chickens (69,310 in 34% of households) and pigs (28,571, 36%). In addition, goats (14,486, 10%), cattle (3,597, 2%), water buffalo (1,467, 1%), sheep (1,784, 1%) and horses (1,430, 1%). With 48%, more Timorese work in service areas (e.g. administration, hotel industry and transport) than in any other municipality in the country.

Apart from the overland route from West Timor , most tourists travel to East Timor via Dilis Airport. In addition to the architectural and historical sights, there are several dive sites with coral reefs , some directly on the city's beaches. In the 2018 travel destination ranking of the US news agency USA Today covering 193 countries, Dili was one of the first places.

The population is mainly supplied via street markets and small shops. Opened in 2011 with the Timor Plaza , East Timor's first shopping center.

Electricity comes mainly from the Hera power plant to the east .


Two municipal radio stations broadcast from Dili: Lorico Lian (FM 100.5 MHz) and Rakambian (FM 99.5 MHz). There is also the English language channel M3 Radio FM 88.8 Dili , the national public broadcaster Radio Nacional de Timor Leste (RTL), the Catholic station Radio Timor Kmanek RTK and the FRETILIN transmitter radio Maubere (FM 99.9 MHz).

The television stations of East Timor are also all based in Dili.


The Timor-Leste National University UNTL currently has five faculties. Agriculture, political science, economics, teaching and engineering. In July 2001 the National Center for Scientific Research ( Centro Nacional de Investigação Científica ) and the National Institute for Linguistics ( Instituto Nacional de Linguística ) were founded. Other universities are the private Universidade da Paz (UNPAZ) and Universidade de Díli (UNDIL). The Institute of Business (IOB), the Dili Institute of Technology (DIT), the Instituto Ciencias Religiosa (ICR) and the Instituto Professional de Canossa are also accredited as a university by the Agência Nacional para a Avaliação e Acreditação Académica (ANAAA) (IPDC) and the Instituto Superior Cristal (ISC).

In 2009, the Hadahur Music School , the country's first music school , was opened in the Becora district .

Other educational institutions include the Dili International School (DIS), the Instituto Camões (Portuguese cultural center) and the Colégio de São José .


In the National Stadium in East Timor in the district Audian matches will be played the national leagues. Most of the clubs in the first and second division of the Liga Futebol Amadora come from Dili. In 2010 and 2011 the team of Dili Leste (Dili Ost) was the winner of the then Taça Digicel .

The Tour de Timor , one of the toughest mountain bike races in the world, starts and ends in Dili every year. In addition, the Dili marathon takes place every year.

Town twinning

We have partnerships with the following cities:

Personalities from Dili

The Fatuhada district from the air

Picture gallery

Web links

Commons : Dili  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Dili  - travel guide
Wiktionary: Dili  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Phillip Adams in Timor Leste. October 10, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2019 (Australian English).
  2. Geoffrey Hull : The placenames of East Timor , in: Placenames Australia (ANPS): Newsletter of the Australian National Placenames Survey, June 2006, pp. 6 & 7, ( Memento of February 14, 2017 in the Internet Archive ). September 2014.
  3. ^ Government of Timor-Leste: Administrative Division (English)
  4. SAPO: Nova toponímia de Díli começa a ser implementada com 89 ruas , October 30, 2015 , accessed on October 31, 2015.
  5. Observador: Timor-Leste: novos nomes para as ruas de Díli , October 30, 2015 , accessed on October 31, 2015.
  6. Jornal da Républica with the Diploma Ministerial n ° 199/09 ( Memento of February 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 315 kB)
  7. Descentralização Administrativa na República Democrática de Timor-Leste: Dili , accessed on February 7, 2014
  8. José Ramos-Horta: Funu - East Timor's fight for freedom is not over! Ahriman, Freiburg 1997, ISBN 3-89484-556-2 .
  9. Masters of Terror: Domingos Maria das Dores Soares ( Memento of August 29, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 27, 2017.
  10. a b Direcção-Geral de Estatística : Results of the 2015 census , accessed on November 23, 2016.
  11. Census of Population and Housing Atlas 2004
  12. ETAN, September 15, 2006, A Survey of Gangs and Youth Groups in Dili, Timor-Leste 2006 (PDF; 3.1 MB)
  13. History of Timor - Technical University of Lisbon ( Memento of March 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 824 kB)
  14. Dili District Development Plan 2002/2003 ( Memento of April 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (English; PDF; 471 kB)
  15. ^ Picture of the new presidential palace
  16. ^ Dinosaurs in the Presidential Palace
  17. Delegation of the European Union to Timor-Leste ( Memento of March 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  18. ^ Radio Timor-Leste: PR TMR moves to Lahane because of flood , February 18, 2013
  19. Paul Cleary: Peace in East Timor at cost of economic dignity , The Australian, February 7, 2015  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as broken. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed February 7, 2015.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / m.theaustralian.com.au  
  20. SAPO Notícias: Projeto sino-timorense de 70 MUSD fará nascer primeiro arranha-céus de Timor-Leste , January 17, 2017 , accessed on January 17, 2017.
  21. Page no longer available , search in web archives: Dili Marathon: In and around Dili@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / dilimarathon.com
  22. Tony Wheeler, Xanana Gusmao, Kristy Sword-Gusmao: East Timor. Lonely Planet, London 2004, ISBN 1-74059-644-7
  23. Timor Tourism: Motael Church ( Memento from September 17th, 2015 in the web archive archive.today )  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed September 16, 2015.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / timor-tourism.tl  
  24. http://asembleyofgod.blogspot.de/2016/06/iagurasaun-iead-dili.html
  25. ^ Memorial plaque in front of the building, in Portuguese
  26. http://apmt.org.br/central-de-noticias/o-templo-construido-em-timor-leste-sera-inaugurado-3890
  27. ^ Timor Tourism: The Chinese Temple ( Memento November 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed September 16, 2015.
  28. AMRT website: Timorese Resistance Archive & Museum ( Memento of February 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 1, 2017.
  29. Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Timor-Leste in figures 2011 (PDF; 3.8 MB) ( Memento from February 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 5, 2013
  30. Direcção Nacional de Estatística: 2010 Census Wall Chart (English) ( Memento from August 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2.7 MB)
  31. a b Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Suco Report Volume 4 (English) ( Memento from April 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 9.8 MB)
  32. Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Timor-Leste in Figures 2008 ( Memento of 7 July 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 3.7 MB)
  33. Dive Timor
  34. Off-the-radar cities to explore in 2018 . In: USA TODAY . ( usatoday.com [accessed January 9, 2018]).
  35. Timor Plaza ( Memento from November 29, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  36. Wärtsilä: Wärtsilä awarded Operations & Maintenance contract for power plant in Timor-Leste , July 10, 2012 , accessed on July 12, 2012
  37. ARKTL - Asosiasaun Radio Komunidade Timor-Leste (English)
  38. ^ Agência Nacional para a Avaliação e Acreditação Académica: Accredited Institutions ( Memento of August 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 14, 2014.
  39. Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of East Timor ( Memento from May 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 15, 2013.
  40. Municípios Portugueses: Geminações de Cidades e Vilas , accessed on January 7, 2018.