Kuvendi i Shqipërisë
|Official logo||Parliament building|
|Legislative period :||four years|
|First session:||April 21, 1921|
|Current legislative period|
|Last choice:||June 25, 2017|
|Chair:||President of Parliament :|
|Distribution of seats:||* PS 75 seats|
The Albanian parliament is called Kuvendi i Shqipërisë [ kuvɛndi i ʃcipəɾisə ] ( German Assembly of Albania ) . It has 140 members. The legislative period lasts four years. Five parties have been represented since the last parliamentary elections in June 2017 . President of the Parliament is Gramoz Ruçi ( PS ). Albania has a unicameral system . The seat of parliament is located in the capital Tirana .
1920s and Ahmet Zogu's monarchy
In 1920 the Lushnja Congress was constituted by representatives from most of the Albanian cities and regions. Its 37 members assumed the function of a legislative national assembly without having been elected.
In February and March 1921, the first elections in the history of Albania took place. On April 21, 1921, the 78 elected MPs met in Tirana for the first time. The elections could hardly be described as democratic . Rather, large landowners and clan leaders pushed their candidates through or let themselves be chosen by their followers.
In 1924, Fan Noli's government, which had come into office through a parliamentary vote, was overthrown at gunpoint. The new ruler Ahmet Zogu influenced the upcoming elections in 1925 in his favor. The bicameral system (Chamber of Deputies and Senate), determined by a new electoral law, met for the first time on July 1, 1925.
In 1928 Parliament accepted Zogu's proposal to establish a constitutional monarchy with himself as king . During the time of the Kingdom of Albania (1928–1939) the Albanian parliament consisted of only one chamber. Italy occupied Albania from April 1939 to September 1943 .
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
From May 24th to 28th, 1944, the 1st anti-fascist congress of national liberation (Kongresi i Parë Antifashist i Çlirimit Kombëtar) took place in Përmet . This congress of Përmet (Kongresi i Përmetit) consisted of 186 delegates from all over the country, elected the 118-person Anti-Fascist Council for National Liberation (Këshilli Antifashist Nacional-Çlirimtar) , a transitional parliament that will be held from October 20th to 23rd Berat met.
After the Second World War , a constituent assembly was elected on December 2, 1945 . The communists influenced the election in their favor and could win. According to the 1946 constitution, the parliament was called Kuvendi Popullor (People's Assembly). It didn't matter under socialist rule. All important decisions were made by the dictator Enver Hoxha and the governing bodies of the Labor Party that he controls .
Republic of Albania
On March 31, 1991, pluralistic elections took place for the first time after the end of the “enveristic” rule . In addition to the communists, who soon transformed into the Socialist Party , the Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë (or Partia Demokratike for short ) and a few other small parties stood up. The socialists won the election. Equal opportunities had not existed because the newly founded Democrats were barely organized. The voters were also intimidated and deliberately disinformed by the old propaganda media.
The first truly free elections were held in March 1992. From them the Partia Demokratike emerged as the winner. The new parliament met for the first time on April 15, 1992.
Rights and obligations
In addition to legislating , Parliament is responsible for electing the President and the members of the Constitutional Court and deciding on war and peace. A newly formed government must gain the confidence of the parliamentary majority before it takes office.
If parliament does not succeed in electing a president in a number of ballots prescribed by the constitution , it is automatically dissolved and new elections take place. Furthermore, the parliament can be dissolved by the president if it has not been possible to elect a prime minister in several votes. The president then has to fix new elections in due time.
Suffrage and elections
The current electoral law was drawn up in a rare cooperation between the two major parties (socialists and democrats) and passed by parliament with their majority in January 2009. Compared to the electoral law in force over the past twelve years, the new law favors large parties.
The 140 parliamentary seats are determined by proportional representation . The number of voters in the individual constituencies varies greatly; The constituency of Tirana, for example, has almost a million inhabitants, while the constituency of Kukës has barely 100,000. In addition to parties and individual candidates, joint lists of several parties, so-called electoral coalitions, can also stand for election, but each individual member party is listed separately on the voting slip. Simultaneous candidacies on lists in different constituencies are also allowed. Parties not represented in parliament require the signature of 10,000 supporters to stand for candidacy, individual candidates the signatures of one percent of the voters in their constituency. In order to be taken into account in the allocation of seats in a constituency, a party must win at least 2.5% of the vote and a coalition at least 4% of the votes.
Parliamentary elections have taken place eight times since the end of the dictatorship: 1992, 1996, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2013 and 2017. Until recently there were more or less major irregularities in the registration of voters, the casting of votes and the counting of votes. In particular, the 1996 elections were massively falsified. The OSCE and other international organizations have therefore monitored the elections every time since 1997 . Albanian civil rights groups have also been active in this regard since 2001.
Election result 2017
Due to a boycott of parliament by the opposition, numerous members of parliament resigned or changed parliamentary groups in spring 2019. Several seats subsequently remained vacant.
|Political party||Abbreviation||Party leader||
|Party's share of the nationwide vote
|Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë||PS||Edi Rama||74||48.34|
|Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë||PD||Lulzim Basha||43||28.28|
|Lëvizja Socialiste për Integrim||LSI||Petrit Vasili||19th||14.27|
|Partia për Drejtësi, Integrim dhe Unitet||PDIU||Shpëtim Idrizi||3||4.8|
|Partia Socialdemokrate e Shqipërisë||Psd||Skënder Gjinushi||1||0.95|
|fraction||Party (s)||Number of
|Group of the Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë||Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë||74||Taulant Balla|
|Democrat parliamentary group||Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë||9||Rudina Hajdari|
|"Independent" parliamentary group||Socialist Movement for Integration , Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë and the Party for Justice, Integration and Unity||9||Nimet Musaj|
|"Democracy and Justice" group||Socialist movement for integration , Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë||11||Edmond Stojku|
|Non-attached||Socialist Movement for Integration , Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë , Party for Justice, Integration and Unity and Partia Socialdemokrate e Shqipërisë||19th|
(As of March 16, 2020)
Composition of parliament since 1946
|Timeline of parties elected or represented in government in Kuvendi i Shqipërisë|
|Civil rights||Peasant movement||PAA|
Allocation of seats in parliament since 1992
|Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë||92||122||24||46||56||68||50||43|
|Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë||38||10||101||73||42||65||65||74|
|Lëvizja Socialiste për Integrim||-||-||-||-||5||4th||16||19th|
|Partia Republikane Shqiptare||1||3||1||-||11||1||3||-|
|Partia Socialdemokrate e Shqipërisë||7th||-||9||4th||7th||-||-||1|
|Partia Demokracia Sociale e Shqipërisë||-||-||-||-||2||-||-||-|
|Partia Bashkimi për të Drejtat e Njeriut||2||3||4th||3||2||1||1||-|
|Partia e Ballit Kombëtar Shqiptar||-||2||1||-||-||-||-||-|
|Partia Demokratie e Re e Shqipërisë||-||-||-||6th||4th||-||-||-|
|Partia Agrare dhe Ambientaliste e Shqipërisë||-||-||-||3||4th||-||-||-|
|Partia Demokristiane e Shqipërisë||-||-||2||-||2||-||-||-|
|Unioni Demokratik Liberal i Shqipërisë||-||-||-||-||1||-||-||-|
|Partia për Drejtësi, Integrim dhe Unitet||-||-||-||-||-||1||4th||3|
|Partia Kristiane Demokrate e Shqipërisë||-||-||-||-||-||-||1||-|
|Total number of seats||140||140||155||140||140||140||140||140|
Parliament has had 20 legislative terms since the Republic of Albania was re-established after the Second World War. In some cases, the legislative periods are also counted from the beginning of the first freely elected parliament (in brackets).
- Constituent Assembly: January 10, 1946 - March 16, 1946
- I: March 25, 1946 - January 21, 1950
- II: June 28, 1950 - April 14, 1954
- III: July 19, 1954 - February 21, 1958
- IV: June 21, 1958 - June 3, 1962
- V: July 14, 1962 - March 12, 1966
- VI: September 10, 1966 - May 4, 1970
- VII: November 20, 1970 - June 19, 1974
- VIII: October 28, 1974 - February 21, 1978
- IX: December 25, 1978 - July 14, 1982
- X: November 22, 1982 - January 10, 1987
- XI: February 19, 1987 - November 13, 1990
- XII (I): April 15, 1991 - February 4, 1992
- XIII (II): April 4, 1992 - March 29, 1996
- XIV (III): July 1, 1996 - May 15, 1997
- XV (IV): July 23, 1997 - May 14, 2001
- XVI (V): June 29, 2001 - May 20, 2005
- XVII (VI): September 2, 2005 - September 2, 2009
- XVIII (VII): September 7, 2009 - September 7, 2013
- XIX (VIII): September 9, 2013 - September 9, 2017
- XX (IX): September 9, 2017 - September 9, 2021
- Commission on Legal Issues, Public Administration and Human Rights (Komisioni për Çështjet Ligjore, Administratën Publike dhe të Drejtat e Njeriut)
- Commission for European Integration (Komisioni për Integrimin Europian)
- Foreign Policy Commission (Komisioni për Politikën e Jashtme)
- Economic and Financial Affairs Commission (Komisioni për Ekonominë dhe Financat)
- National Security Commission (Komisioni për Sigurinë Kombëtare)
- Commission for Manufacturing, Trade and Environment (Komisioni për Veprimtaritë Prodhuese, Tregtinë dhe Mjedisin)
- Labor, Social Affairs and Health Commission (Komisioni për Punën, Çështjet Sociale dhe Shëndetësinë)
- Commission for Education and Resources for Public Information (Komisioni për Edukimin dhe Mjetet e Informimit Publik)
- In addition to these standing parliamentary commissions, there are also temporary and investigative commissions.
- Kosta Barjaba (Ed.): Albania's democratic elections, 1991 - 1997. Analyzes, documents and data. Berlin 2004. ISBN 3-89404-237-0 .
- Afrim Krasniqi: Political Parties in Albania 1920-2006. Tirana 2006.
- Official website of the Kuvendi i Shqipërisë (Albanian and English)
- Documentation on the history of parliament from 1920 to 2005 (Albanian) (PDF file; 17.44 MB)
- Owen Pearson: Albania in Occupation and War - From Fascism to Communism 1940-1945 . In: The Center for Albanian Studies (Ed.): Albania in the Twentieth Century: A History . Volume 2. IB Tauris, London 2005, ISBN 1-84511-014-5 , pp. 348 ff., 399 f .
- vote in Albania. In: Wahlrecht.de. Retrieved April 7, 2014 .
- Kronologji e Legjislaturave në Shqipëri. Parliament's website, archived from the original on May 10, 2012 ; Retrieved November 23, 2012 (Albanian).