The tribunal , in the upscale colloquial language a court of justice, in Latin the "seat of the tribune ", referred to in ancient Rome the elevation of the official, the magistrate , the praetor , the general in the camp and the governor in the provinces, whereby the legitimation to exercise power and Jurisprudence was symbolized by a spatial elevation.
In Prussia , the tribunal was understood to mean the highest jurisdiction . This authority was introduced by Samuel von Cocceji as part of the reorganization of the Prussian constitutional state against the resistance of the estates.
The word became popular through Friedrich Schiller , who used it in 1797 to mark the sudden transformation of a theater audience into a court of law: “ The scene becomes a tribunal ” (in: The Cranes of Ibykus ).
Recently, the term tribunal has been used for special political courts or for international courts of international criminal law . The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) classified certain control bodies , such as the former Independent Administrative Senate in Austria, as a tribunal.
However, the term is occasionally also used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that want to point out abuses at national or international level - see the Russell Tribunal (1966) for the investigation and documentation of US war crimes in the Vietnam War after 1954 or international human rights -Tribunal (1995) against the Republic of Austria for persecution and discrimination of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender people in Austria from 1945 to 1995.
- Revolutionary Tribunal (France)
- Special tribunals in France during the Second World War
- Federal Criminal Court (Switzerland)
- Ad hoc criminal court
- Prussian Higher Tribunal
- Wismar Tribunal
- Crown Tribunal
- Werner Gephart, Jürgen Brokoff, Andrea Schütte, Jan C Suntrup: "Tribunals: Literary representation and legal processing of war crimes in a global context", Kostermann Verlag, 2013, 244 pages