|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|County :||Pfaffenhofen on the Ilm|
|Height :||366 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||35.45 km 2|
|Residents:||12,639 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||357 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||85077|
|Area code :||08459|
|License plate :||PAF|
|Community key :||09 1 86 137|
|LOCODE :||DE MGB|
|Market structure:||9 parts of the community|
Market administration address :
|Ingolstädter Str. 2
|Mayor :||Herbert Nerb ( FW )|
|Location of the Manching market in the Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm district|
Manching is a market in the Upper Bavarian district of Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm and is located southeast of Ingolstadt . The place can look back on thousands of years of settlement history. Today there is a facility for test flights, the Air Base Ingolstadt / Manching , consisting of the Bundeswehr Technical Service Center 61 for aircraft and the Airbus Defense and Space factory premises , a division of the Airbus Group .
Prehistory and early history
From the 3rd century BC BC to the 1st century BC A Celtic oppidum existed near today's Manching , which in its heyday was the most important trading center in Central Europe. The east part of the parish church of Peter is located on an elevation that is still recognizable today, facing north-south and accompanying the couple's banks at a distance of around 70 meters. Despite some doubts, this elevation was postulated as the last relic of the western Celtic ramparts. In the summer of 1963, three meters of stone layers of a north-south dry stone wall were cut during sewer work in Pfarrer-Frey-Strasse. The format of these stones corresponded to those of the well-known Celtic ring wall front.
Merovingian graves may have been discovered in the 19th century in the municipality of Manching, but these early finds are mostly poorly or very poorly documented. A discovery that can be classified more precisely has been handed down from 1913. Back then, during excavation work for the sewer system in Geisenfelder Strasse, immediately south of the Catholic Church of St. Peter, graves were dug, and a burial included a "saber" (probably a sax or spathe ). Five Merovingian graves, which were unearthed during excavations in 1988 and 1991, meet modern scientific standards. They had to make way for new buildings on Münzstrasse and Geisenfelder Strasse. The datable finds could be assigned to the 6th and 7th centuries.
On the left bank of the Paar, in the local area of Manching, traces of an abandoned settlement by the Ingolstadt history buff Josef Reichart were identified as early medieval precipitation. Not far from the “Steinbichel”, readings were collected from fields and gravel pits north of the main road. These consisted of ceramics, loom weights , iron slag and fragments of clay nozzles. The prehistorian Wolfgang Hübener (1924–2015) dated ceramics to the 7th to 8th centuries.
Early medieval Manching was first mentioned on April 4, 844 AD as “Mandechingon”. At that time, Ludwig the German (approx. 806–876) gave the Benedictine monastery of Sankt Emmeram in Regensburg an estate in Manching.
During massive renovation and demolition work on St. Peter's Church after the Second World War, the foundations of a Carolingian church were found. The findings uncovered in 1955 by the excavation technician Wilfried Titze († 1992) commissioned by the State Monuments Office were completely overbuilt according to their documentation. Today's church, including the largely new building from 1956/1957, has three construction phases. The oldest part is to be addressed as a late Romanesque choir tower. In addition to the substructure of the church tower, in which the sanctuary was originally located, this area also includes the initially flat-roofed nave. During the late Gothic reconstruction around 1510, this area was raised, vaulted and redesigned to become the church's choir. A new, prestigious long house, which was demolished in 1955, is now attached to the old building.
Manching (Menichingen), which belongs to the Amt Werde, formed its own henchmen's office in 1231/1234, to which only the Bailiwicks of Manching and its subsidiary village Pichl (Puheln) belonged. In the 13th century Manching lost the henchman's office again and came to the office of Vohburg with Pichl.
Ludwig der Strenge (1229–1294) presented the Münchsmünster monastery with the patronage right over the parish church of Manching on March 20, 1264 with the consent of the Augsburg bishop Hartmann von Dillingen († 1286) , subject to the ducal bailiff's right . The parish had belonged to the monastery before, but was later estranged.
A ministerial gender is attested for Manching . This is confirmed by a document from 1347 that mentions a Hanns von Maenichingen. It is very likely that there was a castle in Manching, which has neither been documented by sources nor archaeologically. In the Wittelsbacher division agreements of "Mannenching Castle", the facility in Merching is meant. The Burgstall Schloßberg (also called "Schlössl") was always assumed to be the site of the presumed Manchinger Veste.
In 1472, the then pastor of Manching, Wilhelm Heuberger, founded a mass for the St. Moritz Church in Ingolstadt . The foundation approved by the Moritz pastor was intended for an altar of Saints Peter and John in a chapel of the church.
Early modern age
Since 1505 Manching belonged to the Duchy of Neuburg-Sulzbach and to the Regional Court of Reichertshofen. Since 1777 the parish village was part of the Electorate of Bavaria . In the course of the administrative reforms in Bavaria , today's municipality was created with the municipal edict of 1818 .
At the end of the 16th century, at the time of the Protestant Neuburg Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig (1547–1614), the superstition prevailed in Manching that consumption could be cured by burying the nails and hair of a sick person in a field and then saying five Our Fathers . In 1604, the same count had the mostly artfully made sacrament houses in the churches of his territory demolished. So also that in the church of Manching. This destruction was accompanied by an iconoclasm. In St. Peter, for example, the altarpiece and the thieves attached to the sculpture of the Crucified were removed.
At the beginning of the 19th century, in 1802, there were two brewers, a landlord, two millers, a shopkeeper, baker, butcher and others living in Manching. The parish village comprised a total of 120 households. Despite its size, Manching had only a small tax revenue of 414 guilders , 19 cruisers and a little more than four hellers . At that time this was due to the fact that only small mercenaries and cottagers lived there in the area of inferior soils . In addition there were many fishermen who earned their living from the couple that flows through Manching to the Danube . It was also the fishermen who often delivered persistent, sometimes violent hostilities with the fishermen from Ingolstadt, which were sometimes put on record. In 1817 Manching already comprised 136 houses with 600 inhabitants.
When the pastor Heinrich Kirchberger, who had only been appointed in 1821, died on May 19, 1825, the village in the Neuburg deanery had to be filled . At that time, in addition to Manching, the villages of Niederstimm, Pühl (Pichl) and Lindach as well as the wasteland Rathmanshof (Rottmannshart) belonged to the ecclesiastical catchment area. According to the announcement by the state government announced by the pastor's office, the total of 845 inhabitants enabled an annual income of 1197 guilders and 25½ kreuzers. Ten years later, after the transfer of the Manchinger pastor Johann Nepomuk Schmid, the pastoral position with school was advertised again. The now 1,023 Catholics enabled the new pastor to earn an annual income of 870 guilders and 18½ kreuzers, with 200 guilders and 27 kreuzers making up the pastor's salary. Due to a trial of the parish for a tenth in Niederstimm, which was currently ongoing at the time , part of the total income was not yet calculable.
As early as 1856, the Manching fire brigade was able to provide support in the event of a fire, even in remote communities, as the Munich messenger reported. In March 1856 a major fire broke out in Weichering , which cost more than 40 families their belongings. In addition to Manching, the syringes from Reichertshofen , Pörnbach and Zuchering were also used.
In the 1861 census, the place had 835 inhabitants in 421 buildings. He owned a church (Sankt Peter) and a school. In 1876 the population had increased to 1025 people.
From 1871 to 1873 the two robbery murderers Ferdinand Gump (1844–1873) and Eduard Gänswürger (1843–1873) filled the people of the old Bavarian Donaumoos with horror. When Gump had killed his accomplice Goose Strangler, a Manchinger fish pond owner was briefly suspected of having committed a robbery and murder of the robbery murderer, because the goose strangler's clock was found on him. Gänswürger's corpse had been taken to Manching on the orders of the authorities, where the summoned photographer, the button maker Franz-Xaver Sölch from Ingolstadt, took one of the first Bavarian criminal cases. The news of the goose strangler's death spread at lightning speed and bystanders made a pilgrimage to Manching from near and far. The robbery was on public display for nearly five days before his inquest took place.
In 1873 a number of roofs in the village were obviously still thatched. This is based on reports from the Augsburger Postzeitung and the Neue Ingolstädter Zeitung , which reported that a fire broke out in the barn of a mercenary in Manching, which threatened the whole place with flying sparks. A wildfire could only be prevented through the commitment of all available residents. The men took up positions on the surrounding houses and poured them ceaselessly with water that was drawn from the couple and the wells in front of the houses. Only the thatched roofed house of the mercenary, another house and the harvest-filled barns belonging to the two properties, of which at least one was covered with hollow bricks, burned down. The two rural families affected could not hope for any compensation because they had not taken out any furniture insurance . The same reports also mention that cholera was spreading in the countryside and on August 25 of the same year two cases of illness became official in Manching.
On May 15, 1875, the Augsburg − Ingolstadt line and the Manching station between Ingolstadt and Vohburg were opened to rail traffic. As part of this, a mail expedition was opened at the Manching station on June 1 of the same year .
Fort VIII of the Ingolstadt fortress , which was also known as the Manching intermediate plant , was used as a prisoner of war camp during the First World War . This camp was unpopular among the inmates, as they had to march around eight kilometers each morning to get to their agricultural workplaces.
In 1933, the Manching chaplain , Gottfried Kohler, was accused in the National Socialist Danube messenger of repeatedly appearing as a counter-speaker to Nazi meeting speakers and the parish vicar Anton Traut was declared in 1938 because of the remark made in religious instruction at the school: "Hitler is the greatest war instigator" interrogated by the District Administrator Alfred Straßer in Ingolstadt. In 1942, the Manchinger pastor Heinrich Kalb refused to hold a “heroic service” for an excommunicated fallen man, which resulted in threats from the mayor.
The construction of the Munich – Nuremberg autobahn in 1935 and the construction of the Manching air base with garrison gave the town an upswing. For the first time, with the construction of the airfield, Protestant Christians also came to Manching in large numbers. Further immigration followed the collapse of the Third Reich through expellees. The first permanent church building, which came under monument protection in 1993, was inaugurated on July 20, 1958. The course is located on the site of the US-Americans after the war blasted forts VIII. At this point, German shortly before the war ended in 1945 were deserters soldiers were concentrated from the Wehrmacht prison Munich Stadelheim. The court martial of Division No. 467, established in Munich in 1942, ruled on them and had also been transferred here. After the verdicts were announced, a total of 25 executions were carried out for desertion, unauthorized removal and self-mutilation. This background was an essential consideration for building the church, the Friedenskirche , from the ruins of the fort here. The architect of this building was Olaf Andreas Gulbransson (1916–1961), the son of the draftsman and painter Olaf Gulbransson (1873–1958).
From 1956 to 1957 the parish church of St. Peter had already been rebuilt and expanded. During the planning for this massive renovation, the Gothic nave was torn down, regardless of the historical building, and a considerably enlarged new building with a wooden barrel vault was erected. So that the Romanesque tower fit proportionally to this new building, this was increased in 1956 by the area of the tower clock. In the new nave, the Romanesque-Gothic choir also serves as a tabernacle room. The interior was restored in 1994 and the exterior followed in 2000.
The main renovation and expansion of the rectory began in April 2017. In the course of these measures, the rectory built after the war is also to be demolished and replaced by a new building. Archaeologists have been investigating the areas around these new buildings and conversions that the State Monuments Office has imposed on them since April. The basement and foundations of the old rectory, which was demolished after the war, were also exposed. This was directly in front of the entrance to today's rectory.
On January 1, 1962, part of the dissolved community Unsernherrn was incorporated. On January 1, 1971, Niederstimm was added. Pichl followed on January 1, 1972. In 1978, Westenhausen was added on January 1 and Oberstimm on May 1.
Between 1988 and 2018 the market grew from 9,267 to 12,503 by 3,236 inhabitants or by 34.9%.
|Party / list||2020 election||Election 2014|
- 1888–1912: Johann Nerb senior.
- 1912–1928: Josef Münzhuber
- 1928–1933: Johann Nerb jun.
- 1933–1945: Johann Schranz
- 1946–1952: Johann Nerb jun.
- 1952–1956: Albert Huber
- 1956–1960: Adalbert March
- 1960–1966: Michael Raith
- 1966–1984: Johann Stutz, CSU
- 1984–2002: Albert Huch, Free Voting Community
- 2002–2008: Otto Raith, CSU
- since 2008: Herbert Nerb, Free Voters e. V.
coat of arms
The municipality of Manching has had a coat of arms since 1955. The blazon reads: “Split by silver and blue; in front an upright black key, behind a prehistoric golden lock hook in the shape of a horse's head. "
Culture and sights
The Friedenskirche is considered a successful work by the architect Olaf Andreas Gulbransson.
The Celtic-Roman Museum shows exhibits from the time of the Celts and Romans from the Manching area.
Economy and Infrastructure
Airbus Group : The development and the factory of the Airbus Group division Airbus Defense and Space (formerly Cassidian) with currently approx. 4500 employees are located in Manching . Its headquarters were relocated from Ottobrunn to Manching in December 2008 . The prototype of the Eurofighter was made here. The final assembly of all Eurofighters for the German Air Force and the equipment of the electrical components of the fuselage for all Eurofighter models are currently located here. Airbus Defense and Space also uses the airfield of Wehrtechnische Dienststelle 61 , whose southern runway (07R / 25L), at 2940 m long and 60 m wide, is one of the largest in Europe and was designated as the official emergency runway for the American space shuttle project.
Agriculture and Forestry
According to official statistics, there were eleven employees in the field of agriculture and forestry, 2116 in the manufacturing sector and 234 in the trade and transport sector at the place of work. In other economic sectors, 1420 people were employed at the place of work subject to social security contributions. There were a total of 3,890 employees at the place of residence subject to social security contributions. There were four companies in the manufacturing sector and eleven in the construction sector. In addition, in 1999 there were 84 farms with an agriculturally used area of 1950 ha, of which 1661 ha were arable land and 279 ha were permanent green space.
The Federal Office for Equipment, Information Technology and Use of the Federal Armed Forces with its Wehrtechnischen Dienststelle 61 (WTD 61) at the Ingolstadt / Manching Air Base is one of the largest employers in the municipality.
In Manching, on the site of the former Immelmann barracks and at three other locations, there is the first nationwide camp for rapid deportations, the “Arrival and Return Facility I”. It was opened on September 1, 2015 and goes back to a decision by the Bavarian state government. There are asylum seekers accommodated with little perspective to stay, mostly from Balkan countries. Some of them are deported and some of them return voluntarily to their home countries. There are other authorities in Manching that are responsible for similar matters.
- Kindergartens: 323 kindergarten places with 367 children
- Primary schools: two
- Secondary schools: two (5–6, 7–9) with 46 teachers and 866 students
- Realschule am Keltenwall with 72 teachers and 1010 students
Manching is on the Regensburg – Ingolstadt railway line . However, the station is no longer used for passenger traffic.
sons and daughters of the town
- Erika Görlitz (* 1952), politician (CSU) and member of the state parliament
Personalities who have worked on site
- Thomas Reiter (* 1958), spaceman and brigadier general in the Bundeswehr
- Markus Kavka (* 1967), presenter, journalist and DJ
- Susanne Sievers : Manching. The Celtic city. Theiss, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8062-1765-3 .
- Dorothea van Endert: The bronze finds from the oppidum of Manching. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-515-05776-5 .
- Gerhard Jacobi: Tools and equipment from the Manching oppidum. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1974, ISBN 3-515-01798-4 .
- Elisabeth Bauer: kitchen fragrance and organ sound. Favorite food cookbook with delicacies from Manching in Upper Bavaria. 1999, ISBN 3-930888-73-4 .
- Siegfried Hofmann: On the construction work in the churches of Manching and Ebenhausen at the beginning of the 16th century. In: Collection sheet of the historical association Ingolstadt. 87, 1978, pp. 356-361.
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Municipality of Manching in the local database of the Bavarian State Library Online . Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, accessed on September 12, 2019.
- Werner Krämer , Franz Schubert: The excavations in Manching. Volume 1, Steiner, Wiesbaden 1970, p. 27.
- Timm Weski: Merovingian graves from Manching. In: Collection sheet of the historical association Ingolstadt. Volume 101 (1992), p. 30.
- Timm Weski: Merovingian graves from Manching. In: Collection sheet of the historical association Ingolstadt. Volume 101 (1992), p. 28.
- Timm Weski: Merovingian graves from Manching. In: Collection sheet of the historical association Ingolstadt. Volume 101 (1992), p. 31.
- Werner Krämer , Franz Schubert: The excavations in Manching. Volume 1, Steiner, Wiesbaden 1970, p. 57.
- Gottfried Weber: The Romanesque in Upper Bavaria. Architecture, sculpture, wall painting. Ludwig, Pfaffenhofen 1985, ISBN 3-7787-3258-7 , p. 352.
- Georg Dehio : Handbook of German Art Monuments, Bavaria IV: Munich and Upper Bavaria . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-422-03115-4 , p. 668.
- Markus Nadler: Neuburg on the Danube. The district court of Neuburg and the nursing courts of Burgheim and Reichertshofen. Commission for Bavarian State History, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7696-6852-9 , p. 73.
- Markus Nadler: Neuburg on the Danube. The district court of Neuburg and the nursing courts of Burgheim and Reichertshofen. Commission for Bavarian State History, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7696-6852-9 , p. 74 and p. 102.
- Gerhard Schwertl: The Relationship of the Dukes of Bavaria and Count Palatine near Rhine to the Church (1180–1294) . (= Miscellanea Bavarica Monacensia. 9; Neue Schriftenreihe des Stadtarchivs München. 25) Munich 1968, p. 357.
- Markus Nadler: Neuburg on the Danube. The district court of Neuburg and the nursing courts of Burgheim and Reichertshofen. Commission for Bavarian State History, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7696-6852-9 , p. 101.
- History of the city of Ingolstadt. From the beginning to 1505. Verlag Donau-Courier, Ingolstadt 2000, ISBN 3-920253-45-0 , p. 660.
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- Johann Baptist Welsch: Reichertzhofen - market and regional court. A contribution to the history, topography and statistic of Pfalzbaiern . Anton Weber, Landshut 1802, pp. 28-29.
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- Intelligence the Royal Bavarian Upper Danube District , No. 26, June 29, 1935, Col. 928.
- Munich messenger for city and country. No. 66, March 18, 1856, pp. 285-286.
- Joseph Heyberger, Chr. Schmitt, v. Wachter: Topographical-statistical manual of the Kingdom of Bavaria with an alphabetical local dictionary . In: K. Bayer. Statistical Bureau (Ed.): Bavaria. Regional and folklore of the Kingdom of Bavaria . tape 5 . Literary and artistic establishment of the JG Cotta'schen Buchhandlung, Munich 1867, Sp. 1366 , urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10374496-4 ( digitized ).
- entertainment for the Ingolstädter Zeitung. No. 31, July 31, 1876, p. 128.
- Miscellaneous - Manching. In: Illustrated Bavarian People's Newspaper. No. 9, March 2, 1873, p. 68.
- Misc. In: Augsburger Postzeitung. No. 39, February 14, 1873, p. 311.
- Miscellaneous - Manching. In: Augsburger Postzeitung. No. 187, Volume 187, August 12, 1873, p. 1487.
- News from Ingolstadt and the surrounding area. In: New Ingolstädter Zeitung. No. 181, August 10, 1873, p. 734.
- Miscellaneous - Manching. In: Schwabmünchner Tages-Anzeiger. No. 204, August 30, 1873, no page number.
- Notice. Opening of new lines in: Royal Bavarian District Official Gazette of Upper Bavaria. No. 45, May 14, 1875, col. 622.
- Ingolstadt under National Socialism. A study. (= Documentation on contemporary history. Volume 1). Stadtmuseum Ingolstadt, 1995, p. 336.
- History of Manchings. on: manching.de
- Stefanie Reichelt: For me the war is over! Deserters and objectors to war in the Second World War in Munich . Buchendorfer, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-927984-36-1 , p. 38.
- Planning and building in the new Germany . Westdeutscher Verlag, Cologne / Opladen 1960, pp. 168–169.
- The minster . Volume 19, Schnell & Steiner, 1966, p. 321.
- Max Schmidtner: Old cellar vault discovered. on: donaukurier.de , May 22, 2017; accessed on June 2, 2017.
- Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 490 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 586 and 587 .
- Results of the 2020 local elections , accessed on March 16, 2020
- Market town council members of Markt Manching as of the end of April 2017 ( Memento from April 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- Manching barracks: "Special camp with deportation airport". ( Memento from August 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Bavaria satisfied with "Balkanzentrum" in Manching. on: welt.de , September 16, 2015.
- Manching: 517 refugees by the end of the year. on: ingolstadt-today.de , November 3, 2014.
- How many refugees can Germany handle? ( Memento of December 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Documentation. on: zdf.de , December 10, 2015.