The east cemetery of the city of Munich , located in the Obergiesing district , was built in 1821 and is still in use today. The facility covers a total area of over 30 hectares with around 34,700 grave sites, and the Munich municipal crematorium is located in the East Cemetery .
The oldest part of the Ostfriedhof was laid out in 1817 as the Auer Friedhof on a narrow strip of Auer Flur (on today's Tegernseer Landstrasse), which protruded into the Giesing area. After several extensions and the closure of the cemetery on Gietlstrasse in 1876, it has also become the Giesinger Friedhof.
The cemetery building on St.-Martins-Platz was built between 1894 and 1900 according to plans by Hans Grässel . The monumental dome painting is by Josef Guntermann . At that time the Ostfriedhof was expanded into one of the large cemeteries in the city of Munich, which was growing rapidly at the time. The arcade tombs formed a special structural feature, creating a courtyard-like spatial situation in the middle of which row graves were arranged.
Kurt Eisner was cremated in the municipal crematorium after his murder on February 21, 1919. On May 1, 1922, the Munich Free Trade Unions unveiled a memorial dedicated to “The Dead of the Revolution”. Eisner's urn was walled into its base . Shortly after the takeover of the Nazi Party , the Revolution monument was destroyed. On June 22, 1933 it was canceled; Eisner's urn was brought to the New Israelite Cemetery , where his grave is still to this day. After the war, the monument was faithfully recreated by the artist Konstantin Frick .
The old Auer cemetery chapel was destroyed in the Second World War. The heavily damaged funeral hall was rebuilt by Hans Döllgast in 1951/52. The cascades , originally built around 1900, were initially not used for a long time after war damage, but were put back into operation in 2017.
The Munich Municipal Crematorium, located at the Ostfriedhof, was opened shortly before the outbreak of the First World War. Among the first people to be cremated here - some from other parts of Germany and Austria - were u. a. Kurt Eisner (1919), Alfred Hermann Fried (1921) and Ernst Schweninger (1924).
The crematorium in its current structural form, including the mourning hall, was designed by Hans Grässel - he also created other buildings in the East Cemetery - and opened on September 27, 1929 in a “simple form”. Grässel completely renounced religious symbolism in the mourning hall. The crematorium was made available for general inspection for several days before it was put into operation, with the director of the burial office himself taking the lead. A total of 27,000 visitors came. The Bavarian Courier railed in an article "against this type of official support for the cremation movement".
During the National Socialist era , the bodies of thousands of opponents and victims of the Third Reich were burned in the municipal crematorium : At the beginning of July 1934, the remains of 17 political opponents murdered during the “ Röhmputsch ” were brought to the crematorium and burned there. These were SA members as well as opponents of National Socialism as a whole; To avoid causing a stir, their bodies were transported to the crematorium in a moving van. The ashes of the dead - among them the opponents of National Socialism Fritz Gerlich and Walter Häbich - were randomly poured into various urns in order to cover up the traces of the victims forever. An unknown number of people who were murdered in the Stadelheim prison for political reasons, as well as the corpses of 3,996 prisoners from the Dachau , Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps and the killing centers of the so-called Aktion T4 were cremated here.
On the morning of October 16, 1946, trucks of the US Army pulled up in front of the municipal crematorium with coffins. Allegedly in the coffins were the bodies of US soldiers who had died in a hospital and were to be cremated under the supervision of officers. In reality, eleven coffins contained the corpses of the main Nazi war criminals executed a few hours earlier in Nuremberg : Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop , Chief of the High Command of the Wehrmacht Wilhelm Keitel , Chief of the Security Police Ernst Kaltenbrunner , Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rosenberg , Governor General of Poland Hans Frank , Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick , publisher of the newspaper Der Stürmer Julius Streicher , Gauleiter of Thuringia Fritz Sauckel , Colonel General Alfred Jodl , Reich Commissioner for the Netherlands Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who anticipated his execution by suicide . In order to prevent any later cult of the dead, the military government ordered that the ashes of the dead be scattered in the Isar . The official announcement said: The corpse of Hermann Wilhelm Göring was cremated along with the corpses of the war criminals who were executed in Nuremberg on October 16 according to the judgment of the International Court of Justice, and the ashes were secretly scattered to the wind .
The structural ensemble of the municipal crematorium and mourning hall designed by Hans Grässel has been preserved in its original form and is a listed building. After several renovations, the Munich crematorium had five cremation ovens since the 1970s. At the beginning of 2018, the Munich city council approved the construction of the new furnace, which is scheduled to go into operation in 2021.
Many celebrities also found their final resting place in Munich's East Cemetery (see list of personalities buried in Munich's East Cemetery ).
- The interior of the funeral hall was used in 1985 by the television series Kir Royal as a filming location for the fictional luxury restaurant Villa Medici .
- With a diameter of 20 meters, the dome of the funeral hall is the third largest of its kind in Europe after the Pantheon in Rome and the Liberation Hall in Kelheim.
- Munich City Archives
- Benedikt Weyerer: Munich 1933–1949 - city tours on political history. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-927984-18-3 .
- Lioba Betten - Thomas Multhaup: The Münchner Friedhöfe - Guide to Places of Remembrance , MünchenVerlag, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-7630-4056-8 , pp. 30–37
- Erich Scheibmayr : Last home - personalities in Munich cemeteries. MünchenVerlag, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-9802211-0-5 .
- Erich Scheibmayr : Who? When? Where? 3 parts. MünchenVerlag, Munich 1989, 1997, 2002, ISBN 3-9802211-1-3 , ISBN 3-9802211-3-X , ISBN 3-9802211-4-8 .
- Willibald Karl: The Munich East Cemetery - From the “Auer Leichenackern” to the big city crematorium. Two tours. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-937090-58-0 .
- The Ostfriedhof and its cascades , Department for Health and Environment - Municipal Cemeteries Munich, Munich 2017, free brochure
- Thomas Guttmann (Ed.): Giesing - From the village to the district. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 978-3-927984-04-2 . Giesing's new landmark (p. 32ff)
- Cemetery plan (cemetery administration of the state capital Munich) (PDF; 997 kB)
- "Famous personalities" buried in Munich's Ostfriedhof
- Hans Pietzner: Landscape Cemeteries. Leipzig 1904, p. 60
- List of monuments for Munich (PDF) at the Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments, monument number D-1-62-000-6085
- Thomas Darnstädt : A stroke of luck in history . In: Der Spiegel . No. 14 , 2005, pp. 128 ( online ).
- https://www.muenchen.de/rathaus/Stadtverwaltung/Referat-fuer-Gesundheit-und-Umwelt/Friedhof_und_Bestattung/SFM/Friedhoefe/Krematorium.html , accessed on August 1, 2018
- https://www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de/inhalt.neubau-genehmigt-der-ostfriedhof-bekommen-ein-millionen-krematorium.7eeb5082-b0c4-4d4a-9b4a-283e56b6b703.html , accessed on August 1, 2018