Regensburg Cathedral Sparrows

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Regensburg Cathedral Sparrows
Regensburger Domspatzen Logo blau.svg
Seat: Regensburg / Germany
Carrier: Regensburger Domspatzen Foundation
Founding: 975
Genus: Boys' choir with male voices
Founder: Wolfgang of Regensburg
Head : Cathedral Kapellmeister Christian Heiss
Voices : Concert choir = 80 SATB young choirs = 150 SATB
Website :

The Regensburger Domspatzen are the cathedral choir of the Regensburg Cathedral, made up of boys and young men, sponsored by the Regensburger Domspatzen Foundation . The Regensburger Domspatzen can look back on over a thousand years of history and are therefore one of the oldest boys' choirs in the world. They are among the most famous and renowned choirs. In 2002 they were awarded the title of Cultural Ambassadors of Europe by the European Choir Federation . The Regensburger Domspatzen were recognized as “Junior Ambassadors for Children's Rights” by participating in the UNICEF “Junior Ambassador” competition.

In 2010 it became known that in the choir and in the educational institutions belonging to it, psychological and physical violence was systematically exercised against the children and adolescents, among others also under cathedral music director Georg Ratzinger . According to a research report from 2017 and more recent studies, 500 victims have recently suffered physical and 67 victims sexual violence by probably 45 and 9 perpetrators, respectively.


Regensburg Cathedral Sparrows

Precursors in the Middle Ages and early modern times

In 975, Bishop Wolfgang von Regensburg founded a cathedral school to train the next generation of clergy. The musically trained boys were used to organize the liturgy and to pray in the choir. The term choir is derived from this. A foundation of the cathedral chapter from the 16th century, the cathedral priest , was used to set up and maintain a boarding school for the cathedral students. The Regensburg bishop and the cathedral chapter provided the financial means. The importance of the cathedral school had declined sharply at this time, the prebende "a catering and preservation institution for a small number of boys who had to sing during the worship services".

The choir from the 17th to 19th centuries

During the Thirty Years' War , the prebende experienced an interruption of several years because the foundation went bankrupt. The cathedral school was dissolved. Since the city of Regensburg was occupied by Swedish troops at that time, Protestant rather than Catholic services were celebrated in the cathedral. In 1653, under Bishop Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg , the cathedral school was re-established and restructured. Since that time, on the one hand, clergy training is no longer carried out in the cathedral school, but in the newly founded Regensburg seminary . The training and accommodation of the boys' choir, on the other hand, was reorganized in the cathedral sparrows that still exist today.

After the Principality of Regensburg, including the Regensburg Monastery, had become the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810 , the State of Bavaria and those responsible up to then from the cathedral chapter and bishop shared the financing of the cathedral school from 1819.

The choir in the early 20th century under the name Domspatzen

In August 1910 the Regensburg Cathedral Choir undertook its first trip abroad under Franz Xaver Engelhart ; it led to a church music course in Prague . The name Domspatzen is mentioned for the first time in press reports about this trip . Previously there was only talk of the cathedral choir or cathedral chapel . In 1934, the cathedral chapter was able to acquire a property in Regensburger Orleansstrasse, which the cathedral patron moved into a year later. The choir became world-famous primarily through the work of Theobald Schrems , cathedral music director 1924–1963.

The Domspatzen in National Socialism

The Domspatzen appeared in front of party organizations on the Regensburg NSDAP Gauag in June 1933. At the request of Gauleiter Hans Schemm , this was done with a play by Richard Wagner, among other things . When Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler visited Regensburg in October 1933, the cathedral choir sang for him in the city's Reichssaal. This performance was initiated by the choirmaster Theobald Schrems. In the period that followed, Hitler personally supported the Domspatzen financially until the end of the war. The choir performed a total of six times in the presence of the “Führer”; B. on the Nazi Party Rally of 1938 in Nuremberg and twice on the Obersalzberg .

In 1937 the cathedral choir undertook a tour of South America, largely financed by Hitler, with performances a. a. in São Paulo and Montevideo . In a supporting role in the propaganda film The Immortal Heart by Veit Harlan , the Domspatzen appeared as a church choir without a liturgical function. Since this film had an anti-Catholic streak, the performance of the Boys' Choir at that time aroused strong criticism within the Regensburg Cathedral Chapter. Bishop Michael Buchberger apologized by hand to all German ordinaries and emphasized that “neither the cathedral chaplain nor much less cathedral chapter and bishop had any knowledge or even an inkling that the [...] permission to sing a song for the film, would be abused in such a way ”. A protest filed afterwards would no longer have any practical significance. With funding from Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels , the Domspatzen undertook various trips abroad to represent the Nazi regime after the beginning of the World War . B. to Poland, France, Spain and Portugal. The Regensburg Bishop Michael Buchberger largely supported this propaganda role of the cathedral choir.

Unlike similar ecclesiastical institutions, such as the Bavarian philosophical-theological colleges , which were also dependent on state funding and cooperation with the Nazi regime, neither the cathedral school nor the cathedral choir were banned or dissolved. Attempts by local NSDAP functionaries to use the cathedral choir even more for representation purposes and to minimize its liturgical services were stopped by Hitler in 1942 through the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda . A final decision about the future of the Domspatzen should only be made after the end of the war.

Cathedral Kapellmeister Schrems himself tried, however, to counteract an excessive appropriation of the cathedral sparrows by the Nazis. Than during the aforementioned trip to South America, the first chairman of the conformist Domchorvereins, Dr. Martin Miederer, ordered that the boys should appear in Jungvolk uniform , Schrems categorically refused. In the end, barely half of the boys turned up in uniform. On another occasion Schrems dismissed a singing boy from the choir because he had preferred a Hitler Youth Pentecost camp to the pontifical office.

Evaluation of the commitment of the Domspatzen for the Nazi regime

After 1945 Theobald Schrems justified the Domspatzen's appearances for the Nazi regime by saying that a refusal would have endangered the cathedral choir. Since he always performed religious pieces, Schrems wanted these performances to be "interpreted as hidden acts of resistance" in retrospect. Karl Birkenseer speaks of the fact that there were only “attempts by the Nazi rulers to take over the choir for their own purposes”, but no active cooperation. The historian Helmut Halter, on the other hand, emphasizes Schrems' opportunism, vanity and initiative in the "role of the cathedral sparrows as an instrument of the foreign cultural policy of the Nazi propaganda ministry". The renowned Nazi researcher Wolfgang Benz sees the “work of the Regensburger Domspatzen” as an example “of the everyday Catholic compromise between church and state, piety and commerce”. This is "a story of adaptation and conformity that characterizes church life in the National Socialist state."

The cathedral sparrows after 1945

Georg Ratzinger (1924–2020) was cathedral music director and director of the boys' choir for 30 years, from 1964 to 1994. He was the brother of Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI. Ratzinger went on an annual concert tour through Germany, but also expanded the tradition of concert tours abroad ( USA , Hungary , Japan , Taiwan , Hong Kong , Korea , the Czech Republic and Poland ). Recordings from records and CDs accompanied his work. In 1976 the Domspatzen were awarded the Bavarian Poet Thaler . In 1978 they sang during the state visit of the British Queen Elisabeth II in Germany, in 1980 during the visit of Pope John Paul II in Germany and in 1982 at the reception of Federal President Karl Carstens in Augustusburg Castle on the occasion of a NATO conference. In 2011 they helped to organize the ceremony for the day of national mourning in the plenary hall of the German Bundestag .

Domkapellmeister Roland Büchner directs the choir from 1994 to 2019 . Büchner increasingly scheduled performances of large choral works; these included Handel's Messiah , Haydn's Creation , or Bach's St. Matthew - and St. John Passion . The Domspatzen led numerous international tours a. a. to Japan, China , Kuwait , South Africa , the Philippines , France , Portugal , Scotland , Italy , Hungary, the Vatican , Austria , Switzerland , Belgium and Slovakia .

On March 25, 2019, the Regensburg diocese announced that the former Domspatz and former Eichstätt cathedral music director Christian Heiss will succeed Roland Büchner on September 1, 2019.


The Regensburger Domspatzen are an amalgamation of the Regensburg Cathedral Choir and the Regensburg Singing School . The Regensburger Domspatzen Foundation , a foundation under public law, is responsible for the choir, the grammar school with boarding school and the elementary school . This is supported by the Regensburg Cathedral Chapter and the Association of Friends of the Regensburg Cathedral Choir .

The Friends of the Regensburg Cathedral Choir was founded on July 15, 1925 on the initiative of Theobald Schrems to support the choir. The association Kulturstiftung der Regensburger Domspatzen e. V. , which later became part of the Regensburger Domspatzen e. V. was renamed. This dissolved in January 2015 because the diocese had forbidden the cathedral sparrows to accept funds from the association years earlier. The background to this is that the then chairwoman of the association, Maria Eichhorn, is also active at donum vitae . The remaining money of the association will be donated to charity.

The Regensburger Domspatzen are taught at their own linguistic and humanistic school, the Regensburger Domspatzen music high school. Due to the introduction of the eight-year grammar school (G8), it was converted into a pure music grammar school in 2004. A total of around 420 "sparrows" attend the choir, school and boarding school.

The elementary school of the Regensburger Domspatzen (1st to 4th grade) was operated in the Pielenhofen monastery until autumn 2013 . Since the 2013/14 school year, the primary school has been housed in its own building on the grounds of the grammar school in Regensburger Reichsstraße. The aim of the school is to prepare the boys for the transfer to the Domspatzen grammar school with intensive care and educational reform elements.

Mistreatment and sexual abuse

In March 2010, several former Domspatzen students reported sexual assault. Franz Wittenbrink described cases of abuse during his time at the Regensburger Domspatzen in the live broadcast with Markus Lanz on March 13, 2010, in the broadcast Menschen bei Maischberger and a day later in ML Mona Lisa . The ordinariate of the diocese then named the dead boarding school directors Friedrich Zeitler and Georg Friedrich Zimmermann as perpetrators . A year later, the diocese presented selected press representatives with a summary report on the incidents of sexual abuse in the diocese of Regensburg between 1945 and 2010. According to further research by the online medium Regensburg-Digital , the diocese conceals systematic sexual assaults among the cathedral sparrows , which therefore go back to the Nazi era. The long-term sexual assaults by the former boarding house directors of the Domspatzen, Zeitler and Zimmermann, were also uncovered in a journalistic research and not by the diocese.

Former cathedral sparrows from the archive estimated the number of choirboys affected by sexual abuse at around one hundred in 2014. In April 2015 the diocese of Regensburg announced that it wanted to clear up the incidents with the help of the victim protection organization Weißer Ring . The victim lawyer recommended by the White Ring, Ulrich Weber, set up a website through which those affected could contact him.

On January 8, 2016, Weber publicly announced in an interim report that a significantly higher number of victims could be assumed. Until then, the diocese had only spoken of mistreatment in the Domspatzen pre-school in Etterzhausen and later in Pielenhofen; he now also reported attacks in the grammar school, boarding school and choir in Regensburg. Weber announced that from 1953 to 1992 at least 231 children were beaten or sexually abused by priests and teachers of the diocese. He assumes that the number of unreported cases of abused children is significantly higher and that around one in three of the approximately 2,100 preschoolers suffered from physical violence between 1953 and 1992. Weber also pointed out that the cathedral council had been informed of the events “by the end of the 80s at the latest” and that the long-time director of the choir, Georg Ratzinger , “must have known about the numerous cases of abuse in the boys' choir”. Ratzinger rejected these allegations and affirmed that he had not heard of sexual assault or excessive violence at the time; Slaps in the face were "not only common with the Domspatzen, but in all areas of education as well as in families".

In his final report, presented on July 18, 2017, Weber named 547 cases of mistreatment and abuse among the Regensburger Domspatzen. 500 boys were victims of physical violence and 67 victims of sexual violence; some suffered both. The Regensburg Bishop Voderholzer had a pastoral word read out in the parishes of the diocese . He asked the victims of physical or sexual violence "humbly" "to forgive the perpetrators, most of whom died," and asked "that this apology would be accepted by those affected."

In 2017, 75 people applied for recognition of physical violence suffered, 47 of whom were finally dealt with. A total of € 178,000 payments were made on 45 of these, in 2 cases payments are still open.

In 2018, according to a report by the political magazine Report Mainz , former cathedral sparrows raised allegations of having been sexually abused by older classmates. The diocese of Regensburg offered possible victims the opportunity to report, but also criticized the television report as the allegations were not new.

Two studies commissioned by the Regensburg processing committee, one historical-critical and one criminological, showed that a “total institution” was recognized in which the success of the choir was far above the welfare of the children. It was a system of constant surveillance down to the most intimate areas, which, however, was hardly controlled from outside. For decades there was no interest in pedagogical and individual support for children. The long-time director of the preschool, Johann Meier , is attributed with sadism and omnipotence fantasies. The former cathedral music director Georg Ratzinger is described as an expressive violent criminal.


The Regensburger Domspatzen stand on Table Mountain in Cape Town, South Africa on March 4, 2008

In the autumn of 2005, the cathedral sparrows released an album under cathedral bandmaster Roland Büchner, on which the concert for Pope Benedict XVI. can be heard. It rose to number 86 in the German album charts and number 5 in the classic charts, the highest chart position of an a cappella recording ever. The concert was performed in the Sistine Chapel in the presence of the Pope and under the direction of cathedral music director Roland Büchner. The Vatican concert together with the Munich Philharmonic under Christian Thielemann and Domkapellmeister Roland Büchner also made it into the classical charts (12th place, December 2005).

For several years now, the Kai-Uwe-von-Hassel-Stiftung , established by Monika von Hassel, has been honoring high school graduates from the Regensburger Domspatzen music high school every year, who have distinguished themselves through above-average and special achievements during their time at the cathedral.

The Regensburg Cathedral Kapellmeister since the 16th century

  • 1551–1568: Johann Simon
  • 1568–1585: Wolfgang Wolch
  • 1585–1600: Philipp Lederer
  • 1600–1601: Christian Schimperlin, Succentor
  • 1601–1607: Magister Georg Nigrinus (black)
  • 1607–1627: Joachim Held
  • 1627: 00000Aufmüller (with the title Director Chori )
  • 1628: 00000Christoph Bayer (choraleist with the functions of cantor since 1622)
  • approx. 1631: 00Behaim (choralist and cantor)
  • approx. 1633: 00Paul Jehlin (choralist and cantor at the same time)
  • 1636–1640: Vossa (cantor and building authority administrator)
  • 1640–1643: a priest, "a good musicus vocalis et instrumentalis"
  • 1643–1647: Paul Jehlin
  • 1647–1648: Johann Gemainer
  • 1648–1652: Paul Jehlin (also German schoolmaster)
  • 1652–1662: Andreas Halmher
  • 1662–1674: Laurentius Halmher
  • 1674–1679: Georg Faber (with the title of Domkapellmeister)
  • 1679–1691: Johann Georg Reichwein
  • 1691–1702: Simon Erzmann
  • 1702–1715: Anton Joseph Havek
  • 1715–1729: Joseph Zink
  • 1729–1738: Johann Wolfgang Söltl (cathedral vicar)
  • 1738–1769: Johann Joseph Ildephons Michl
  • 1769-1801: Fortunatus Cavallo
  • 1801–1834: Wenceslaus Cavallo
  • 1834: Johann Evangelist Deischer00000
  • 1838–1839: Johann Evangelist Deischer
  • 1839–1871: Joseph Schrems
  • 1871–1882: Franz Xaver Haberl
  • 1882–1882: Michael Haller
  • 1882–1885: Ignaz Mitterer
  • 1885–1891: Max Rauscher
  • 1891–1924: Franz Xaver Engelhart
  • 1924–1963: Theobald Schrems
  • 1964–1994: Georg Ratzinger
  • 1994–2019: Roland Büchner (the first non-clergyman since Fortunatus Cavallo)
  • since 2019: Christian Heiss

Well-known former Regensburg cathedral sparrows

Ensembles that emerged from former cathedral sparrows

Films (selection)

Films about the Regensburg Cathedral Sparrows

  • 1955: You are not alone , documentary with scenes by Paul R. Heil ( awarded the title “valuable” at the Berlinale 1956 )
  • 1982: We Children - The Regensburger Domspatzen , television documentary by Radio Bremen
  • 2007: Cathedrals of the Danube - With the Regensburger Domspatzen downstream , television documentary ( Bavarian television )
  • 2008: Domspatzen - One year with Germany's oldest boys' choir (French: Les choristes de Ratisbonne ), documentary by Matti Bauer , Tangram film in coproduction with Bavarian TV and Arte
  • 2018: The Regensburger Domspatzen in the Holy Land - From the Sea of ​​Galilee to the Dead Sea , television documentary (Bavarian television)

Films with the participation of the Regensburger Domspatzen

(without films about the Domspatzen)

See also


  • Karl Birkenseer (ed.): The Regensburger Domspatzen: For the glory of God and for the joy of the people. The world-famous choir, past and present . MZ-Buchverlag, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-934863-70-5 .
  • Werner Chrobak (ed.): State, culture, politics. Contributions to the history of Bavaria and Catholicism. Festschrift for Dieter Albrecht's 65th birthday . Lassleben, Kallmünz 1992, ISBN 3-7847-3109-0 .
  • Christel Erkes (ed.): The Regensburger Domspatzen. Encounter with Theobald Schrems . (On the 100th birthday and 30th anniversary of the Regensburg Cathedral Orchestra's death). Moritz Schauenburg, Lahr (Black Forest) 1993, ISBN 3-7946-0301-X . .
  • Siegfried Gmeinwieser: Catholic church music . In: Thomas Emmerig (Ed.): Music history of Regensburg . Pustet, Regensburg 2006, ISBN 3-7917-2008-2 , pp. 75-97 .
  • Georg Paul Köllner (Ed.): Musicus - Magister. Festgabe for Theobald Schrems at the completion of the 70th year of life . Pustet, Regensburg 1963, DNB  453520286 .
  • Robert Werner: Brown spots on the priest's skirt: Studies on the denial and suppression of the Nazi past by the Regensburg theologians Josef Engert , Rudolf Graber and Theobald Schrems . Foreword by Georg Denzler and Stefan Aigner, illustrations by David Liese. Walhallanet Sturm, Regensburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-9814689-6-0 .
  • Paul Winterer: The Regensburger Domspatzen . Mittelbayerische Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft, Regensburg 1989, ISBN 3-921114-72-1 .
  • Paul Winterer: The cathedral music director . Book publisher of the Mittelbayerische Zeitung, Regensburg 1994, ISBN 3-927529-34-6 .
  • Anton Zuber: The Pope's brother. Georg Ratzinger and the Regensburger Domspatzen . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-451-29604-8 .

Web links

Commons : Regensburger Domspatzen  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Heinz Klein: UNICEF thanks the cathedral sparrows. Mittelbayerische Zeitung, February 20, 2012, accessed on September 22, 2017
  2. Claudia Henzler "The total institution" , Süddeutsche Zeitung July 23, 2019, p. 26
  3. ^ Quoted from Karl Ernst Maier: The school conditions in the imperial city of Regensburg. In: Max Liedtke: Handbook of the history of the Bavarian education system. First volume, Bad Heilbrunn 1991, p. 453.
  4. Christoph Meixner: Music and musician life in Regensburg in modern times. In: Peter Schmid: History of the City of Regensburg. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2000, p. 984.
  5. August Scharnagl: On the history of the Regensburg cathedral choir. In: Georg Paul Köllner (Ed.): Musicus - Magister. Festgabe for Theobald Schrems at the completion of the 70th year of life. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 1963, p. 137.
  6. ^ Fritz Wagner: How old are the “Regensburger Domspatzen?” In: Karl Hausberger : Kulturarbeit und Kirche. Verlag des Verein für Regensburg Bishopric History, 2005, p. 677.
  7. ^ Frankfurter-Oberpostamts-Zeitung excerpt from April 21, 1842 (volume page 931)
  8. Helmut Halter: The "Regensburger Domspatzen" 1924–1945. In: Werner Chrobak (ed.): State, culture, politics. 1992, p. 375.
  9. ^ Karl Frank: Apostolate and Propaganda. In: Christel Erkes (ed.): The Regensburger Domspatzen. Encounter with Theobald Schrems. 1993, p. 61.
  10. a b c Roman Smolorz : The Regensburger Domspatzen under National Socialism - Singing between the Catholic Church and the Nazi State , Pustet , Regensburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-7917-2930-5
  11. ^ Robert Werner: The Regensburger Domspatzen Hitler's favorite boys' choir. 2012, p. 9 (report on regensburg-digital from October 22, 2012)
  12. ^ Robert Werner: The Regensburger Domspatzen - Hitler's favorite boys' choir. 2012, p. 10 (report on Regensburg-Digital from October 22, 2012)
  13. Helmut Halter: The "Regensburger Domspatzen" 1924–1945. P. 381.
  14. ^ Karl Birkenseer (Ed.): The Regensburger Domspatzen. MZ-Buchverlag, Regensburg 2009, p. 57.
  15. Helmut Halter: The "Regensburger Domspatzen" 1924–1945. P. 386.
  16. Wolfgang Benz: In the Resistance: Size and Failure of the Opposition to Hitler , Munich 2019, p. 167.
  17. Regensburg bids farewell to Georg Ratzinger: young and old give the cathedral music director their last respects on www. , accessed on July 8, 2020
  18. Anton Zuber: The Pope's Brother - Georg Ratzinger and the Regensburger Domspatzen , Herder, Freiburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-451-29604-8
  19. Georg Ratzinger - curriculum vitae and stations on the website of the Diocese of Regensburg , July 1, 2020
  20. European reconciliation an "anchor of hope" on, November 13, 2011
  21. 25 March 2019 1:20 p.m .: A Domspatz becomes the new cathedral music director. Retrieved March 25, 2019 .
  22. Entry in the Bavarian Foundation Directory as of January 2016.
  24. ^ Regensburger Domspatzen: Church drives support association into the dissolution on
  25. ↑ Accusation of abuse at Domspatzen. Two clergymen involved in scandal. ( Memento of March 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) RP-online of March 5, 2010
  26. ^ Abuse report of the diocese of Regensburg: No trace of openness, report on regensburg-digital from March 16, 2011
  27. Abuse at the "Domspatzen" under Theobald Schrem's report on regensburg-digital from March 16, 2011
  28. Over 50 years of cover-up history The Causa Georg Zimmermann report on regensburg-digital from May 11, 2013
  29. "We would have expected something different for our souls". Süddeutsche Zeitung from November 12, 2014.
  30. ^ "Deep shame" about abuse among the cathedral sparrows , DIE WELT of April 27, 2015
  31. Zeit online from January 7, 2016: New figures on abuse at Regensburger Domspatzen
  32. ^ Church: At least 231 children mistreated at Regensburger Domspatzen , Focus Online , January 8, 2016; accessed on January 8, 2016
  33. Hundreds of abuse among the Domspatzen - Georg Ratzinger is said to have known about it , , January 8, 2016; accessed on January 8, 2016
  34. Interview: Georg Ratzinger rejects allegations against himself , Passauer Neue Presse, January 10, 2016
  35. Incidents of violence being exercised against those who are under protection at the Regensburger Domspatzen , investigation report, Ulrich Weber / Johannes Baumeister, July 18, 2017.
  36. July 18, 2017: Sadists in a spiritual guise
  37. Pastoral word of the Bishop of Regensburg on the "Cathedral Sparrow Report"
  38. D: Diocese of Regensburg pays victims of violence 178,000 euros, January 19, 2018, accessed January 19, 2018.
  39. Christine Kerler: Regensburger Domspatzen: Abuse also among pupils. ( Memento from June 30, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Bayerischer Rundfunk from March 21, 2018
  40. ↑ The diocese seeks contact with possible victims. Spiegel online from March 21, 2018
  41. ^ Catholic Church in Germany : Diocese criticizes ARD report on Domspatzen. of March 21, 2018
  42. ^ Bernhard Frings, Bernhard Löffler : The choir first - institutional structures and educational practice of the Regensburger Domspatzen 1945 to 1995 , Verlag Friedrich Pustet , Regensburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-7917-3120-9
  43. ^ Matthias Rau, Lisanne Breiling, Martin Rettenberger: Regensburg processing study - social scientific analyzes and assessments of violence among the Regensburger Domspatzen 1945 to 1995 on the website of the Central Criminological Office (pdf)
  44. Claudia Henzler "The total institution" , Süddeutsche Zeitung July 23, 2019, p. 26
  45. Alexander Held ( memento from March 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) on
  46. Hubert Velten vocal ensemble. Retrieved on July 29, 2018 (German).