Peace in the country of Eger

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The Peace of Eger was concluded on May 5, 1389 in Eger between King Wenzel of Bohemia and the Swabian Association of Cities , an amalgamation of south-west German imperial cities .

Since 1376 there was unrest in southern Germany . To protect their privileges and independence, 14 Swabian imperial cities had founded the Swabian League of Cities without the permission of the Emperor , which, among other things, was directed against the imperial policy of pledging and taxation. Angry about this audacity, Emperor Charles IV went on a campaign with South German princes - but was unsuccessful. His son and successor Wenzel also had to respect this civic association.

The league of cities spread over the whole of southwest Germany by 1385, comprised more than 50 imperial cities and resisted all attempts at dissolution by the king and princes. Then, however, the special interests of individual imperial cities came to light and the federal government showed signs of disintegration from within. The princes did not miss this invitation from their political competitors and provoked the city ​​war in 1387 , which in 1388 hit the whole of southern Germany and was waged with great brutality . So let Palatine Ruprecht II. Palatine enemy prisoners alive burn body . The urban troops, however, were no less cruel than that. Opponent's fields were set alight and crops destroyed. In this way, however, the cities became their declared opponents for the farmers. Thousands of peasants held their position against the municipal army in the only major battle on August 23, 1388, the Battle of Döffingen , until additional troops from their Lord Count Eberhard II of Württemberg came and achieved victory.

The defeat at Döffingen divided the cities even more and encouraged King Wenceslaus, who had been waiting until then, to turn away from the cities. Wenzel intended to marry the daughter of one of the Bavarian dukes . But this was only possible if he stood firmly on the side of the princes. Wenceslaus seized the opportunity and restored peace between the exhausted parties at the expense of the cities. On May 5, 1389, at the Reichstag in Eger, he issued an imperial land peace , which banned the confederation of cities and its re-establishment. The peace in the country also affected the interests of Eger himself, which, for example , had to defend themselves in the noble feud against Eger against attacks by the country nobility . The cities had to pay the princes high war indemnities and other disadvantages were imposed on them. The imperial cities dissolved the federation and most of them joined the country peace. However, no real peace could be secured. In Swabian in particular, there were further disputes until the cities resorted to self-help because of the king's passivity. As early as 1390 there was a new league of cities. Wenzel was also unlucky with his politics - when the princes deposed him in 1400, the imperial cities did not help him.


Individual evidence

  1. Angermeier, 1991 , pp. 83–94, especially p. 93 (Landfriede von Eger)