Arno (Tyrrhenian Sea)

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The course of the Arno

The course of the Arno

location Italy , Tuscany region
River system Arno
River basin district Appennino Settentrionale
Headwaters on Monte Falterona in the Apennines between the municipalities of Londa and Stia
43 ° 43 ′ 32 ″  N , 11 ° 40 ′ 18 ″  E
Source height 1385  m slm
muzzle Tyrrhenian Sea near Marina di Pisa Coordinates: 43 ° 40 ′ 47 "  N , 10 ° 16 ′ 36"  E 43 ° 40 ′ 47 "  N , 10 ° 16 ′ 36"  E
Mouth height m slm
Height difference 1385 m
Bottom slope 5.7 ‰
length 241 km
Catchment area 8247 km²
Drain MQ
100 m³ / s
Left tributaries (Selection) Staggia , Canale maestro della Chiana , Ambra , Greve , Pesa , Elsa , Egola , Era
Right tributaries (Selection) Ciuffenna , Sieve , Mugnone , Bisenzio , Ombrone Pistoiese , Usciana
Big cities Florence
Medium-sized cities Arezzo , Scandicci , Empoli , Pisa
The Arno in Florence

The Arno in Florence

The Arno , in ancient times Arnus , is a 241 kilometer long river in Italy in northern Tuscany .


After the Tiber, the Arno is the most important river in central Italy . It is the largest river in Tuscany and the eighth longest in Italy. It flows exclusively in northern Tuscany and through the province of Arezzo , the metropolitan city of Florence and the province of Pisa . The catchment area of ​​the Arno is more than 8200 km², the mean discharge 100 m³ / s. During the snowmelt and after heavy rains, the Arno swells quickly and is then often only navigable with danger.


From the Latin Arnus ( Pliny , Naturalis historia 3.50). The Philologe Hans Krahe Related this Toponym on a paleo-European base * Ar-n derived from the proto-Indo-European root * ER , "to flow, move".


The Arno rises on Monte Falterona in the Apennines in the Casentino area (Province of Arezzo) through the confluence of the Capo d'Arno , Arninio and Arnaccio streams . As the first town center it flows through that of Stia ( height above sea level 441  m ), where it remains 11 km and where the first larger tributary Staggia enters from the left . After Pratovecchio he reaches Poppi , where the Solano flows from the right from Castel San Niccolò , and Bibbiena , here on the border with Ortignano Raggiolo , from whose municipality the Teggina joins from the right. At Rassina (district or main town of Castel Focognano at an altitude of 310  m ) the tributary of the same name flows in from the left, then the Soliggine flows from the right. Between Subbiano and Capolona , it serves as a border river between the two municipalities, before entering the municipal area of Arezzo , where it spends 12 km in the northern districts. The river, which flows from north to south up to this point, now turns to the northwest and enters the upper Arno valley (Valdarno superiore), which begins at Laterina and Pergine Valdarno , Montevarchi ( 144  m , with an inflow of ambergris from the left), Terranuova Bracciolini ( Tributary of the Ciuffenna from the right) and San Giovanni Valdarno (all province of Arezzo ). In Terranuova Bracciolini, the Arno passes the hydroelectric power station built by Levane Battagli in 1958 , which is located in the Riserva Naturale Regionale Valle dell'Inferno e Bandella nature reserve .

Following the Arno valley in the metropolitan city of Florence , the Arno first meets Figline Valdarno , Reggello , Incisa in Val d'Arno and Rignano sull'Arno ( 118  m ). Between Pelago and Pontassieve , the Arno turns west and takes in the waters of the Sieve from the right. After the thermal spa town of Bagno a Ripoli , the river reaches the metropolis of Florence ( 50  m ), where it spends most of the time in one of the Florentine communities (15 km) and the Ponte Santa Trinita and the Ponte Vecchio were the only ones not to be destroyed in the Second World War Bridge flowing under Florence. The tributary of the Mugnone reaches the river in the western urban area near the Parco delle Cascine ( Quartiere 5 Rifredi ), then the Greve enters on the left . Then the Arno reaches the municipalities of Scandicci , Lastra a Signa and Signa , where the Bisenzio flows from the right . The Ombrone Pistoiese also enters from the right on the municipal border with Carmignano . At Capraia ( Capraia e Limite ) and Montelupo Fiorentino the Pesa joins the Arno and then reaches the town of Limite at the foot of the Montalbano mountain . After Empoli and Cerreto Guidi (as the border river) the river leaves the Fiorentine area.

In the province of Pisa , the river first arrives in San Miniato , where the Elsa and then the Egola flow in from the left on the border with Empoli . Here he touches the metropolitan city of Florence again ( Fucecchio , with the tributary of the Usciana), and then progresses in the province of Pisa along the towns of Santa Croce sull'Arno , Castelfranco di Sotto and Santa Maria a Monte . It reaches the municipalities of Calcinaia and Pontedera ( 14  m ), where the Era divides the river when coming from the south . After Vicopisano , Cascina and San Giuliano Terme , the Arno reaches Pisa ( m ) and flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea at Marina di Pisa .


The Roman historian Titus Livius reported that the river was flooded. Florence in particular was regularly affected. The damage in this city was devastating after a flood on November 4, 1966 , when numerous works of art were damaged and deaths were to be lamented. In recent decades, dams have been built upstream from Florence; this significantly reduced the risk of flooding.



Web links

Commons : Arno (Tyrrhenian Sea)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b cf. Enciclopedie on line (Treccani)
  2. Edelmiro Bascuas, Hidronimia y léxico de origen paleoeuropeo en Galicia (page 41)
  3. a b cf. Batini
  4. a b c cf. Official website of the ISTAT ( Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ) for the districts in the province of Arezzo (2001), accessed on March 3, 2013 (Italian)
  5. a b c cf. SIRA
  6. Enel website on the Levane Battagli plant ( memento from June 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 1, 2013 (Italian)
  7. for Riserva Naturale Regionale Valle dell'Inferno e Bandella , accessed on March 3, 2013 (Italian)
  8. a b cf. Official website of the ISTAT ( Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ) for the districts in the province of Florence (2001), accessed on March 1, 2013 (Italian)
  9. a b cf. Official website of the ISTAT ( Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ) for the districts in the province of Pisa (2001), accessed on March 3, 2013 (Italian)