|Residents||3,025 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||53 inhabitants / km²|
|Popular name||Focognanesi and / or Rassinesi|
|Patron saint||San Martino di Tours (November 11th)|
|Website||Castel Focognano municipality|
Panorama of the castle of the eponymous district Castel Focognano
Castel Focognano is a municipality with 3025 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) in the province of Arezzo in the Tuscany region in Italy . The main town of the municipality is Rassina , while the eponymous district (Frazione) is Castel Focognano .
The community extends over around 57 km² . It is located about 25 km north of the provincial capital Arezzo and 60 km east of the regional capital Florence in the valley of the Casentino on an eastern branch of the Pratomagno . It lies in the climatic classification of Italian communities in zone E, 2 109 GG. The Arno flows through the municipality over a length of 6 km, the Torrente Rassina spends one of its 15 km in the municipality.
The districts (fractions) include Calleta (874 m, approx. 15 inhabitants), Carda (684 m, approx. 100 inhabitants), Castel Focognano (457 m, approx. 130 inhabitants), Pieve a Socana (307 m, approx. 260 inhabitants), Rassina (main town with town hall, 310 m, approx. 1880 inhabitants), Salutio (326 m, approx. 100 inhabitants) and Zenna (300 m, approx. 20 inhabitants).
The first inhabitants of the area were the Etruscans , of whom some monuments can still be seen today. During the Second World War, Rassina had an important position as a retreat for the partisans and American soldiers from the fighting in the Casentine mountains and valleys.
After the founding of the Republic of Italy in 1946, the town began to develop economically and industrialize, mainly through calcium extraction and processing. In the 1960s and 1970s, the cement industry became an economic engine for the region.
During excavations between 1966 and 1972, an Etruscan temple measuring 40 × 18.40 m was discovered in the Pieve a Socana district . The excavation site is a few meters east of the apse of the Sant'Antonino church.
In 1992 Rassina was badly affected by a flood of the Amos.
- Castel Focognano , castle in the district of the same name. First mentioned in 1028 and owned by the Giannellini family until 1322. After that, after a six-month siege, Guido Tarlati took over the castle, which then passed to the Ubertini family and was conquered by Florence in 1404 .
- San Giovanni Evangelista , Church of the Castle in Castel Focognano.
- Chiesa delle Sante Flora e Lucilla , church in the Carda district, which was built in the 9th century at the latest and expanded in the 17th. Contains the works Pietà tra i Santi Giovanni Gualberto, Nicola, Giacomo Maggiore e Bernardo degli Uberti by Mariotto di Cristofano (attributed to, 15th century) and Madonna con Bambino by Santi Buglioni ( terracotta statue from the 16th century).
- Pieve di Sant'Antonino Martire a Socana , Pieve first mentioned in 1072 in the Pieve a Socana district, which is probably of Etruscan origin. The pieve was reduced in size in the 16th century, and the facade, which is still visible today, comes from this period.
- Pieve di Sant'Eleuterio , Pieve in the Salutio district, which was rebuilt between the 11th and 13th centuries, but is probably older. Contains various works by local artists from the 17th century ( Circoncisione by Tommaso Gorini, 1644, Vergine del Rosario by Domenico Nannoni, 1619 and San Francesco by Bernardino Santini, around 1633, sacristy).
- Santa Maria Assunta , church in Ornina (Ornina Alta, also called Ornina Chiesa or Chiesa di Ornina). The place was first known as Curtis ( jurisdiction ) and then as Castrum (castle).
- Santa Maria del Bagno , sanctuary south of Salutio. Originated in the 16th century and belonged to the congregation Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo . Today the former convent is used by scouts , the official mass of the pastor from Salutio takes place here only on Saint's Day.
- Madonna delle Grazie , sanctuary near Calleta, built around 1413.
- Badia a Cornano , 11th century abbey dedicated to San Salvatore. From 1119 it belonged to the Camaldolese and was subordinated to Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence in 1422 and later abandoned.
- Giovanni Caselli: Casentino - Guida Storico Ambientale. Editrice Le Balze, Montepulciano 2003, ISBN 88-87187-81-9
- Emanuele Repetti: CASTEL FOCOGNANO (Castrum Foconianum) nella Val d'Arno casentinese. In: Dizionario Geografico Fisico Storico della Toscana (1833–1846). Online version of the University of Siena (pdf, Italian)
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Website of the Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA), accessed on November 16, 2014 (Italian) (PDF; 330 kB)
- Official website of the Sistema Informativo Ambientale della Regione Toscana (SIRA) on the rivers in Castel Focognano , accessed on August 25, 2013 (Italian)
- Official website of ISTAT ( Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ) on 2001 population figures in the Province of Arezzo, accessed on November 16, 2014 (Italian)
- Official website of the municipality of Castel Focognano on the history of the castle , accessed on February 21, 2011 (Italian)
- Giovanni Caselli: Casentino.
- I Luoghi della Fede.
- Anna Benvenuti: Santuari di Toscana. Edizioni Cooperativa Firenze 2000, Florence 2002, p. 50
- Anna Benvenuti: Santuari di Toscana. Edizioni Cooperativa Firenze 2000, Florence 2002, p. 51