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Stubbornness (stubbornness) is a character trait that is characterized by the consistent insistence on and representation of one's own opinion based on convictions. The associated adjective is "stubborn".

Stubborn people have clear and firm opinions and convictions of their own and cannot be “bent”, but they can be open to other opinions as well as (passively) critical and reconsider their opinions and convictions and, if necessary, change them if they are supported by good arguments be convinced. This distinguishes obstinacy from stubbornness , stubbornness , stubbornness or unteachability . However, stubborn people resist mere external pressure and insist on their point of view. As a result, stubborn people often have problems with deontic ( deontic , from Greek: δέον = 'the ought, the duty' - here in contrast to: epistemic , from Greek: επιστήμη = 'knowledge, science') authorities and blind obedience .

Obstinacy correlates with the personality trait of “ I-strength ”, but is not identical to it.

Hegel stubbornly saw the attitude of " not wanting to acknowledge anything in the mind that is not justified by the thought" and saw in this the "characteristic of modern times" and " the peculiar principle of Protestantism" (basic lines of the philosophy of law, Preface).

See also


  • Duden - The large dictionary of the German language. 10 vols., Bibliographisches Institut, Berlin (2002), ISBN 3-411-70360-1 .
  • Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: Grimm - German Dictionary. 33 vol., Dtv publishing company, Munich, ISBN 3-423-59045-9 .
  • Duden - German Universal Dictionary: The comprehensive dictionary of meanings in contemporary German. Dudenredaktion (editor), Bibliographisches Institut, Berlin, edition: 8th, revised. u. exp. Ed., ISBN 3-411-05508-1 .
  • Werner D. Fröhlich: Dictionary Psychology. dtv Verlagsgesellschaft, Munich, ISBN 3-423-34625-6 .
  • Dorsch - Lexicon of Psychology. Markus Antonius Wirtz (editor), Hogrefe, vorm. Verlag Hans Huber; 17th edition: 17, ISBN 3-456-85460-9 .
  • Renate Wahrig-Burfeind: WAHRIG dictionary of the German language. dtv Verlagsgesellschaft, Munich, ISBN 3-423-34743-0 .
  • Brockhaus. The encyclopedia in 24 volumes. Brockhaus Redaktion (Ed.), Brockhaus Wissenmedia-Verlagsgruppe; 20th edition, ISBN 3-7653-3100-7 .
  • Giaco Schiesser: media, art, training. About stubbornness as an artistic productive force. In: S. Schade u. a. (Ed.): Interface. Schwabe, Basel 2005, ISBN 3-7965-2150-9 . (Translations: into English and Chinese)