GUM (standard)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

GUM is the abbreviation for the 1993 and published recently in 2008 revised ISO / BIPM -Guide " G uide to the expression of U ncertainty in M easurement ". The technical rule ISO / IEC Guide 98-3: 2008-09 Measurement uncertainty - Part 3: Guideline for specifying the uncertainty in measurement is identical to the freely available guideline JCGM 100: 2008 Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement .

History of origin

The beginnings of GUM go back to 1978. At that time, a major German research institute held a “seminar on the specification of measurement uncertainty”. During the seminar it became clear that the concept of error calculation given to us by Carl Friedrich Gauß was incomplete and that the error calculation had to be revised. In fact, Gauss had not brought a second error, which he himself recognized and discussed very well, the "unknown systematic error", to bear in his formalisms. Against the background of advanced metrological methods, however, this measure could no longer be advocated.

Up until then, there was no uniformly practiced procedure for evaluating statistical and non-statistical influencing variables on a measurement result together in a closed formalism. Against this background, the concept of measurement uncertainty was defined and in some cases new methods were developed to determine it. However, in parallel to its creation in the following years, the GUM was always exposed to criticism. In 1995 the GUM was provided with a correction sheet, revised in 2008, supplemented by a supplement and reissued. The supplement describes the application of the Monte Carlo method to determine the measurement uncertainty.

A revision of the GUM began in 2014.

Goal and methods

The aim of the guideline is an internationally standardized procedure for determining and specifying measurement uncertainties in order to make measurement results comparable worldwide.

There are two categories of methods available for evaluating all influencing factors on a measurement, which can also be combined:

  • Type A: Calculation of the measurement uncertainty through statistical analysis of the measurements
  • Type B: Calculation of the measurement uncertainty by means other than statistical analysis

For each influencing factor, it is specified which method is used to evaluate it and how much it influences the overall measurement uncertainty. This procedure should help to determine a realistic and comprehensible measurement uncertainty . The principles of the GUM can be applied to all measurement and calibration situations . With calibration certificates from accredited calibration laboratories , the GUM is the binding basis for determining the measurement uncertainty.


  • International Organization for Standardization, ISO / IEC Guide 98-3: 2008: Uncertainty of measurement - Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement . ISO, Geneva 2008, ISBN 92-67-10188-9 .
  • DIN German Institute for Standardization eV, Guideline for specifying the uncertainty when measuring (German version) , DIN V ENV 13005 , Beuth Verlag GmbH, June 1999. (Document withdrawn)
  • DIN German Institute for Standardization eV, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (German translation) , Beuth Verlag GmbH, 1995, ISBN 3-410-13405-0 .
  • DIN German Institute for Standardization eV, Guide to specifying the uncertainty when measuring - Supplement 1: Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method , DIN V ENV 13005 Supplement 1 , Beuth Verlag, February 2012. (Document withdrawn)

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Bureau International des Poids es Mesures (ed.): News from the JCGM-WG1 . ( [PDF]).
  2. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. International Organization for Standardization, accessed May 25, 2018 .
  3. News from the JCGM-WG1 PDF download . Retrieved March 14, 2015.