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A commendation is the ritual act by which a vassal entered into a personal relationship of loyalty to his patron. The ceremony consisted of kneeling and placing the clasped hands in the hands of the seated liege lord (handshake). This act is called borrowing . Then the feudal lord swears his oath of allegiance; here one speaks of the feudal oath .

The commendation established a personal contract that expired with the death of one of the two parties.

In feudal affairs , the commendation was replaced by feudal investiture .


  • Commendation Medieval Lexicon. Small encyclopedia of the German Middle Ages, founded by Peter CA Schels. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  • Comendation from, accessed on April 12, 2013