The space-saving arrangement of parts when storing, stowing, packing or cutting out is called boxes .
To cut out geometric elements from a surface, these are arranged to save space. For example, individual sheet metal parts that are to be obtained from a sheet metal by nibbling , laser cutting or water jet cutting are nested. The same applies to the cutting of fabric parts in the textile industry , leather or fur parts from animal skins, to cutting tiles, wooden parts from boards.
In addition to an arrangement of the parts that favors the later cutting out, particular importance is attached to minimizing the waste.
The simplest nesting method is a simple rectangular arrangement in which the elements to be cut out are wrapped in rectangles, which are then arranged in rows (Fig. 1). Better algorithms also take into account the possibility of rotating the elements so that they can be pushed closer together (Fig. 2). In practice, attempts are also made to use areas that remain free with smaller or differently shaped elements (Fig. 3).
When packaging , packaging material and storage volume should be saved by the favorable arrangement of the contents, while at the same time ensuring packaging security and stacking stability. The following basic shapes have proven to be successful: cuboids, cylinders, tetrapaks . More complicated shapes are secured by special packaging holders, with additional parts being packed into the cavities that are created (example: cable and remote control on TV).
Stowage is about making the best possible use of an available space, for example the hold of a ship , a truck or the trunk of a car.
Storage space is expensive, so parts are stored in a space-saving manner. At the same time, it must be ensured that both storage and retrieval and retrieval can be carried out easily, quickly and safely.