Processing liquid

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Processing liquid ( English processing fluency ) refers to the ease with which information can be processed. The ease with which perceptual stimuli can be processed is referred to as perceptual fluency , the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory is called retrieval fluency .

The processing fluid influences the formation of judgment. In this way, the perceptual fluid helps a person to feel familiar with a stimulus . Later research could show that the perceptual fluid is experienced in a positive affective manner. This positive effect on the affective experience could also be underpinned with psychophysiological methods by showing that more easily perceptible stimuli activate the zygomaticus major muscle , the so-called "laughing muscle". Also, easily readable statements are believed to be truer. Finally, it was also found that beauty is seen as an indication of the correctness of a mathematical solution, which supports the idea that beauty is intuitively seen as truth . The processing fluid is likely to be one of the bases of intuitive judgment.

Since high processing fluid indicates that interaction with the environment is going well, a person need not pay special attention to the environment . On the other hand, a low processing liquid means that there are problems in the interaction with the environment and these problems require more attention and an analytical approach. Indeed, people process information more superficially when the processing fluidity is high; but use an analytical style of thinking when processing fluency is low.

Basic research on processing fluids is used in marketing today . In a more recent study, it was also possible to show that the long-known effect of illegible handwriting when writing an essay on the grading is due to a lack of processing fluency when reading (and not to negative stereotypes regarding illegible writing).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Alter, AL, & Oppenheimer, DM (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review , 13 , 219-235.
  2. Whittlesea, BWA (1993). Illusions of familiarity. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition , 19 , 1235-1253.
  3. Reber, R. , Winkielman, P. & Schwarz, N. (1998). Effects of perceptual fluency on affective judgments. Psychological Science , 9 , 45-48.
  4. Winkielman, P., & Cacioppo, JT (2001). Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: Psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation increases positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 81 , 989-1000.
  5. ^ Reber, R., & Schwarz, N. (1999). Effects of perceptual fluency on judgments of truth. Consciousness and Cognition , 8 , 338-342.
  6. Reber, R. Brun, M., & Mitterndorfer, K. (2008). The use of heuristics in intuitive mathematical judgment. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review , 15 , 1174-1178.
  7. Topolinski, S., & Strack, F. , (2009). The architecture of intuition: Fluency and affect determine intuitive judgments of semantic and visual coherence, and of grammaticality in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 138 (1), 39-63.
  8. Winkielman, P., Schwarz, N., Fazendeiro, T., & Reber, R. (2003). The hedonic marking of processing fluency: Implications for evaluative judgment. In J. Musch & KC Klauer (Eds.), The Psychology of Evaluation: Affective Processes in Cognition and Emotion . (pp. 189-217). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  9. ^ Alter, A., Oppenheimer, D., Epley, N., & Eyre, R. (2007). Overcoming intuition: Metacognitive difficulty activates analytical thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 136 , 569-576.
  10. ^ Song, H., & Schwarz, N. (2008). Fluency and the detection of misleading questions: Low processing fluency attenuates the Moses illusion. Social Cognition , 26 , 791-799.
  11. ^ Schwarz, N. (2004). Meta-cognitive experiences in consumer judgment and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology , 14 , 332-348.
  12. Greifeneder, R., Alt, A., Bottenberg, K., Seele, T., Zelt, S., & Wagener, D. (2010). On writing legibly: Processing fluency systematically biases evaluations of handwritten material. Social Psychological and Personality Science , 1 , 230-237.