Forced circulation evaporator

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Working principle of a forced circulation evaporator

A forced circulation evaporator is an evaporator whose circulation is generated by a circulating pump. It is mostly used in rectification .


In contrast to a natural circulation evaporator , a pump is used to force the liquid to be evaporated through the evaporator. The pump delivers the liquid to the lower part of the evaporator. This then flows along a heated surface, usually pipes, and starts to boil as soon as the boiling point is reached. The vapor / liquid mixture is then returned to the bubble or column, where the two phases are separated from one another. The liquid is then returned to the evaporator, some of which can be discharged as residue or product.

Forced circulation evaporators can be installed horizontally or vertically and usually consist of tube bundles.

scope of application

Forced circulation evaporators are used when the use of a natural circulation evaporator is not possible, e.g. B. below pressures of about 300 mbar up to about 50 mbar or high-boiling mixtures. Disadvantages compared to the natural circulation evaporator are the investment and operating costs (power consumption) of the circulation pump, which has to convey large quantities.


  • Volker Gnielinski, Alfons Mersmann, Franz Thurner: Evaporation, crystallization, drying. Springer Fachmedien GmbH, Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 978-3-540-67064-3 .
  • Alfons Mersmann: Thermal process engineering. Basics and methods, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH, Berlin Heidelberg 1980.

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