Allochthonous Art

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As allochthonous type ( . Give a wiki ἄλλος Allos "different", "different" and χθών khthṓn "earth", so as "foreign", "away team") is referred to in the biology and ecology alien ( non-indigenous ) and living in freedom kinds of living things that were introduced into their habitat directly or indirectly by humans , i.e. that were not native to this area before. In contrast to the autochthonous species, the evolutionary center and the considered geographical distribution area do not match in the allochthonous species.

There is a direct influence of humans when such species are deliberately introduced outside their natural range or have been brought in unintentionally. However, living beings can also develop new areas as an indirect consequence of human activity. This includes changes in the ecosystem or the creation of connections (e.g. the Suez Canal and the subsequent Lesseps migration ). The indirect influence on the migration (spread) of species is not easily verifiable with certainty.

If allochthonous organisms were able to assert themselves in their new habitat, they are called neobiota (animal species: neozoa , plant species: neophytes , fungal species: neomycetes ) if they were introduced after 1492; the species introduced before 1492 are called archaeobiota . This year stands symbolically for the discovery of America ( New World ) by Christopher Columbus and the sudden increase in the number of living beings transported with it as a result of transcontinental trade and long-distance freight traffic.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Ruth Maria Wallner (Ed.): Aliens. Neobiota in Austria . 1st edition. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna, Cologne Weimar 2005, p. 29-30 .

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