Alternative Manga are Japanese comics that are not published in the major manga magazines and are not subordinate to the styles and genres common in the medium. The term underground manga describes something similar , which, however, like American underground comics and similar alternative comics, specifically stands out from commercial offers. The works are aimed almost exclusively at adults. Alternative manga can also be those that appear in commercial but small magazines or that deliberately stand out from common styles or narrative structures. Fan products like dōjinshi are also sometimes referred to as alternative manga. Some alternative works are unexpectedly successful, filmed and translated, so that the demarcation cannot be made clearly.
Early representatives were the works of the post-war period sold through lending libraries . This market was relatively large, but was dedicated to an adult audience and gave authors great artistic freedom. The lending libraries followed the Gekiga movement of the 1960s, which was similar in content . In 1964, Katsuichi Nagai and Garo founded the most important magazine for alternative manga, another was the COM founded by Osamu Tezuka . The alternative artists of the time had great influence on the stories in the major commercial magazines in which the appeal to young men genus His developed. Large parts of the Gekiga movement went into this. From the mid-1970s, therefore, significantly fewer underground works came out. Works by artists such as Katsuhiro Otomo and Jirō Taniguchi , who were inspired by Western comics, have been considered alternative manga since the 1980s . At the beginning of the 2000s this led to the movement des Nouvelle Manga founded by Frédéric Boilet , which encouraged mutual exchange and experiments. Kan Takahama and Kiriko Nananan were among those involved . The successor to Garo, which was discontinued in 1998, is Ax magazine . Similar magazines geared towards alternative or underground manga are Comic Beam , Ikki and Comic Faust .
- Jaqueline Berndt: Manga, Which Manga? Publication formats, genres, users . In: Japanese civilization in the 21st century . Nova Science Publishers, 2016, ISBN 978-1-63485-598-3 , pp. 128 f .
- Jason Thompson: Manga. The Complete Guide . Del Rey, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8 , pp. 380ff. (English)
- Miriam Brunner: Manga . Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn 2010, ISBN 978-3-7705-4832-3 , p. 38, 62 .
- Jean-Marie Bouissou: Manga: A Historical Overview . In: Toni Johnson-Woods (Ed.): Manga - An Anthology of Global and Cultural Perspectives . Continuum Publishing, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-8264-2938-4 , pp. 27 .