The ventilation mask is used in anesthesia , emergency medicine and intensive care medicine to ventilate a patient or to support his own breathing. The mask is the last connecting piece from the ventilator , circular part or resuscitation bag to the patient. So that the mask made of rubber or plastic closes airtight on the face of the different patients, it usually has an elastic edge. They are available in various sizes and shapes, manufactured by companies such as Dräger and Laerdal . For use with small children there are special designs without an elastic bead and minimized dead space ( Rendell-Baker mask with straight, soft mask edge and all-round lip).
The mask ventilation is indicated when the ventilation is of short duration, such. B. for very short anesthesia, as well as to bridge the time to endotracheal intubation . The airways of the unconscious patient are kept open either by manipulating the lower jaw or by using nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal tubes . These guarantee an airflow through the nose or mouth to the pharynx. To avoid overinflation of the stomach, the pressure exerted by the ventilation must not be too high during mask ventilation.
The mostly triangular or heart-shaped mask must be pressed onto the patient's face with a certain amount of pressure so that it fits tightly with the skin and no air can escape. In addition, the patient's head must be overstretched at the same time, because otherwise the tongue that falls back blocks the airways.
Ventilation masks are also used for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in awake patients. The aim of non-invasive ventilation is to minimize patient discomfort and ventilation-induced complications. The NIV is often used in cardiac or pulmonary diseases.
The laryngeal mask (LMA) is a modified ventilation mask that is inserted into the throat. It is used to keep the airways open in anesthesia during anesthesia and as an aid in making the airway more difficult .
- Walied Abdulla: Interdisciplinary Intensive Care Medicine. Urban & Fischer, Munich a. a. 1999, ISBN 3-437-41410-0 , pp. 9-12.