Biotic environmental factors
As biotic are environmental factors summarized at which living things can be seen involved. They result from the interactions between individual species within an ecosystem . In contrast, there are abiotic factors , which represent inanimate interaction partners.
Interrelationships of two types (bi-systems)
When different species live together in the same area, at least one of the species is usually affected. This influence can be an advantage or a disadvantage. Interactions with a negative effect on at least one of the partners are summarized as antibiosis .
In the following scheme, the type of interaction is marked with a symbol. The plus sign (+) stands for positive, the minus sign (-) for negative, the number zero (0) for no influence at all.
- - / - Competition (ecology) : negative for both sides, with asymmetrical competition more for the inferior, for the superior less
- +/- Parasitism : Positive for the parasite , negative for the host
- +/- predation ( e.g. predator-prey relationship ): positive for the predator, negative for the prey
- 0 / - Amensalism : Negative effect in one way, without effect in the other
- 0/0 Neutralism: No mutual interference
- 0 / + probiose : positive effect on one of the partners, no influence on the other, for example commensalism
- + / + Symbiosis : living together for mutual benefit
- Eugene P. Odum: Fundamentals of Ecology. Volume 1: Basics. translated and edited by Ena and Jürgen Overbeck. Thieme Verlag, 1980. Table 7.7 on page 340.