Full range speakers

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A hi-fi loudspeaker with broadband loudspeaker chassis in a transmission line housing

Broadband loudspeakers are loudspeakers which , on their own, reproduce approximately the entire audible frequency range.


Broadband loudspeakers are usually cone loudspeakers in which a membrane is driven by a voice coil in a magnet. The conflict of objectives in the development and use of broadband loudspeaker chassis is that sufficient air volume must be displaced in order to reproduce low frequencies, which speaks in favor of using the largest possible membrane. For the reproduction of high frequencies, however, small membrane sizes are advantageous because of the lower moving masses and less strong sound bundling. Therefore, in broadband loudspeakers with a large diaphragm, a further cone (tweeter cone) is often placed above the voice coil in addition to the primary diaphragm in order to improve the reproduction of high frequencies.


The largest area of ​​application of full-range speakers is in very cheap or very small devices, such as. B. in radio and TV sets or cell phones. There are also broadband loudspeakers that have been developed for high-quality reproduction, whereby these are most often used in the hi-fi sector , but represent a niche product there. When it comes to PA sound reinforcement , broadband loudspeakers play a role primarily for voice announcements or for sound reinforcement at a relatively low volume.

The loudspeaker housings in which full-range loudspeakers are used are often built for hi-fi applications in such a way that they amplify the bass through resonances, such as bass reflex , horn or transmission line housings. This is done in order to guarantee a bass reproduction that is not too quiet compared to the high and mid-range speakers, which are often highly efficient.

In contrast to multi-way systems, broadband loudspeaker boxes do not require a crossover that divides the signal into partial areas. In some cases, however, equalization circuits such as suction circuits or active equalization are used to linearize the frequency response.

Advantages and disadvantages

One advantage of broadband loudspeakers is that the distortions that arise in multi-way systems due to the different spatial arrangement of the individual components are eliminated. This can lead to the emission of the sound coming closer to the point sound source assumed to be ideal. However, with broadband loudspeakers, the sound is not radiated ideally in planar or punctiform fashion, as the very broadband use at different frequencies means that different locations on the membrane are responsible for the sound radiation. A more compact arrangement of the sound sources can lead to a more realistic spatial impression when reproducing multi-channel sound formats. Here, however, the locations where the sound is generated or the lower transit time differences are only a relevant partial aspect. Aspects such as the frequency-dependent spatial radiation of the loudspeaker and the resulting reflections in the listening room also play an important role here.

Another advantage of broadband loudspeakers is the lower cost of materials due to the fact that only one loudspeaker is required.

The main disadvantage results from the goal of reproducing both low and high tones as well as possible. This leads to compromises which, in comparison with loudspeaker chassis specially developed for a limited frequency range, usually lead to higher distortions (e.g. distortions due to partial oscillation ).


  1. Manfred Zollner, Eberhard Zwicker: Electroacoustics . Springer, Berlin 3. A. 1993, ISBN 3-540-56600-7 , page 212 ff.
  2. FJM Frankort, Vibration Patterns and Radiation Behavior of Loudspeaker Cones , J. of Audio Eng. Soc., Volume 26, No. 9, pp. 609-622 (September 1978)
  3. ^ Issues in loudspeaker design - 6. In: linkwitzlab.com. Retrieved November 17, 2016 .
  4. Michael Dickreiter Volker Dittel Wolfgang Hoeg Martin Wöhr Handbook of Recording Studio Technology : Edition 8 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, page 210