Cross development

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Photo cross processed with C-41
Example of a simulated cross development with GIMP
The original image before editing

As Cross development (also Cross processing, X-Pro or Crossen) refers to the reversal development of a color negative film , or vice versa, the negative development of a color positive film .


Analogous procedures

Here, the film material is developed in its opposite development process, a color negative film for example instead of the C-41 - in the E-6 process or a slide film, for example instead of the E-6 in the C-41 process. In principle, it can be carried out by any photo laboratory that develops negative films. However, it is recommended to expressly inform the laboratory that cross-processing is desired so that the film is not developed normally in the largely automated processes. Many laboratories also fear negative changes to the C-41 chemical approach due to films that are not intended for this purpose and therefore carry out cross-developments organizationally or at different times from regular development orders.

Digital image editing

The cross development can be simulated afterwards in digital photography. Various digital filters can be used in the camera or on the computer. Such an effect can be created by changing the color value and saturation curves with image editing programs such as GIMP or Adobe Photoshop . The strength of the effect can be specifically determined by the processor.

Style and effects

Depending on the film manufacturer and ISO, slight to extreme color shifts can be achieved. Bright colors , high contrast , mostly coarse grain and often also slight blurring are characteristic of cross-processed films . If cross-development in a photo laboratory is desired, this must be stated explicitly. Depending on the film, the results can vary greatly in terms of color. The usable film speed is also influenced by the development. The recommendations for correct exposure vary widely, and overexposure is often recommended.

Due to its soft contrasts and the orange colored carrier material, negative film is optimized for prints on photo paper, while slide film has a significantly lower exposure latitude because it is designed for direct projection. If a slide film is cross-developed (in negative chemistry), a very high-contrast negative is created on a clear carrier material. Cross-development, especially of slide films, is used by many photographers as a deliberate stylistic device in order to obtain blue-greenish, slightly unreal paper prints.


Well-known photographers

Photographers who often use the technique of cross development:

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Lomography - The colors of cross development - sample images for many slide films by mephisto19. Retrieved January 5, 2020 .
  2. The world of analog photography | The cross development. In: The Photo Lang Blog. January 29, 2018, accessed on January 5, 2020 (German).
  3. ^ Nitsa: More Than Photography . Retrieved February 12, 2020.