Exosome (vesicle)

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Cellular formation of exosomes

Exosomes are approx. 30 to 90 nm large vesicles that are released into the environment by a cell . They can be formed by lymph cells, blood platelets , mast cells , dendritic cells , nerve cells , astrocytes and tumor cells , among others . Exosomes are formed in a multi-stage process that includes a constriction of the cell membrane , a so-called endocytosis , and a discharge process, a so-called exocytosis . These vesicles contain, among other things, nucleic acids and proteins in varying compositions and serve as transport vehicles and for the discharge of cell components. In addition, they are used for cellular communication. Exosomes may play a role in acquired immunity . But viruses , such as the HI viruses , also use exosomes for transport and camouflage. Exosomes are currently being investigated as possible therapy options in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer . The formation of exosomes can also be triggered by certain substances such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin .


  • Denzer K, Kleijmeer MJ, Heijnen HF, Stoorvogel W, Geuze HJ: Exosome: from internal vesicle of the multivesicular body to intercellular signaling device . In: J. Cell. Sci. . 113 Pt 19, October 2000, pp. 3365-74. PMID 10984428 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Edit I. Buzás, Robert Horvath, Károly Vékey, László Drahos, Sára Tóth: Antibiotic-induced release of small extracellular vesicles (exosomes) with surface-associated DNA . In: Scientific Reports . tape 7 , no. 1 , August 15, 2017, ISSN  2045-2322 , p. 8202 , doi : 10.1038 / s41598-017-08392-1 ( nature.com [accessed March 31, 2019]).