Concentration ( Latin concentra , "together to the center") is the willful focus of attention on a certain activity, the achievement of a short-term achievable goal or the solving of a given task.
Focusing means that attention is paid to what is currently exercised or felt for a certain period of time, depending on the task also to what is to come. When drawing a line to touch a point, the eyes are already looking at the point as the line is drawn.
Concentration requires mental effort and decreases over time. Concentration is therefore understood to mean maintaining a level of alertness for a relatively long time.
- The emotional state: If you are in a positive emotional state, you are more focused. In contrast, concentration decreases during a negative mood.
- The physical condition.
- The motor activation and motor training.
- The environmental conditions (e.g. media influences) also affect the concentration.
The points mentioned are interdependent.
Measurement of concentration
The measurement of concentration is done with the help of standardized tests (attention-load tests), which depict the ability to perform certain tasks over a certain period of time. The evaluation is based on the number of completed tasks and the number of mistakes that have been made.
The value of the classic paper-and-pencil tests is controversial, as the test items usually have little relevance to everyday life.
The following factors can be considered beneficial:
- Food that the need for omega-3 fatty acid covers and vitamins, especially of vitamin B .
- Concentration exercises such as B. meditation , concentration games (alone or in a group).
- Day sleep (10 to 30 minutes).
- Relaxation methods ( autogenic training , meditation, yoga , progressive muscle relaxation , lots of sleep).
- Moderate endurance sport has a positive effect on mood and thus also on concentration.
- A balanced glucose level can have a positive effect, a very low glucose level can make it difficult to concentrate.
- zeit.de: How do you stay focused? A visit to the London attention laboratory
- zeit.de: More and more, faster and faster, all at the same time - everyday life consumes our attention
- ↑ Hans W. Hunziker: Visual information intake and intelligence: An investigation into the eye fixations in problem solving. In: Swiss journal for psychology and its applications. 29, No. 1/2, 1970.
- ^ H. Budde, C. Voelcker-Rehage, S. Pietraßyk-Kendziorra, P. Ribeiro, G. Tidow: Acute coordinative exercise improves attentional performance in adolescents. In: Neuroscience Letters. 441, 2008, pp. 219-223.
- ^ C. Hagemeister, K. Westhoff: Concentration diagnosis. In: L. Hornke, M. Amelang, M. Kersting: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie. (= Psychological diagnostics. Volume 3: Performance, intelligence and behavior diagnostics ). Hogrefe, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8017-1526-7 , pp. 51-96.