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Kumarma is a Luwian grain deity and is one of the main deities of the Iron Age pantheon. She was called along with the wine god Tipariya.


Kumarma is only mentioned in hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions from the Iron Age, mostly as a "good deity" - (DEUS) BONUS. In Tell Ahmar it is called together with the grain deity Matili - (DEUS) HORDEUM-ma-ti-la / i / ui -, in Karkamis , Tell Tayinat , Arsuz and Karatepe together with the wine god Tipariya - (DEUS) VITIS-ti- PRÆ-ia. In the steles of Arsuz (§ 24) she is called as mother, together with the wine god Tipariya, who is referred to as father. In the Phoenician inscription of the blingue of Karatepe, Kumarma and Tipariya are summarized as bˁlt šbˁ w-trš "mistress of grain and wine". The relationship between the three deities is unknown.

Despite the female gender, Kumarma is derived from the Hurrian god Kumarbi .

Related deities

During the Bronze Age, the Luwian deities Warwaliya and Winiyanta were worshiped in the Hittite city of Ištanuwa , the former a seed deity and the latter a wine deity. The connection between grain and wine is a typical feature of the Luwian religion and symbolizes fertility. It is documented for the first time in the mention of the goddess " Maliya , of the garden, mother of wine and grain", in a Middle Hittite vineyard ritual that clearly shows Luwian features. In the same ritual, the weather god of the vineyard is found for the first time , who was worshiped in Central Anatolia during the Iron Age and depicted in several reliefs with grapes and ears of corn.

Individual evidence

  1. Belkıs Dinçol, Ali Dinçol, JD Hawkins, Hasan Peker, Aliye Öztan and Ömer Çelik: Two new inscribed Storm-god stelae from Arsuz (İskenderun): ARSUZ 1 and 2 . In: Anatolian Studies , 65 (2015), pp. 59-77 doi : 10.1017 / S006615461500006X


  • John David Hawkins Corpus of hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions ; Vol. 1-3. de Gruyter.