Chewing empty

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Pig keeping in crate stalls where chewing empty can often be observed.

Empty chewing is a behavioral disorder in various animal species such as pigs , horses , cattle , dogs, and rabbits .

In pigs, empty chewing occurs under certain conditions in pig production and is characterized by chewing movements without food or other material in the mouth. Side effects of chewing empty can be sucking, teeth grinding and increased saliva production with foam formation. Under certain circumstances, the behavior disorder can develop into a stereotype . The phenomenon is often observed in the case of sows in the crate or tethered area , as well as in the case of fattening pigs in the housing without litter . Employment deficits in connection with eating or looking for food are assumed to be the cause. Chewing empty can be prevented with measures for a more species-appropriate keeping , such as the use of litter or activity material. Other pig behavior disorders that result from similar causes include bar biting , grieving, and weaving. Animal rights organizations such as the Albert Schweitzer Foundation for our fellow world criticize that the disturbances in factory farming are accepted for higher productivity.

Individual evidence

  1. Barbara Kamphues: Comparison of housing variants for the individual housing of suckling sows with special consideration of the effects on animal behavior and economic efficiency. 2004, p. 71 , accessed December 10, 2015 .
  2. Pig breeding and pork production. Recommendations for practice. Wilfried Brade, Gerhard Flachowsky, 2006, accessed December 10, 2015 .
  3. Factory farming - pigs. Avoidability and demands. Albert Schweitzer Foundation for Our Environment, accessed on December 10, 2015 .