The term marketing strategy describes a long-term, well-planned procedure for realizing the marketing goals as part of a marketing plan . There are three different points of view. On the one hand, the marketing strategy can be interpreted as one of several functional strategies such as production, research, personnel or sales strategy . According to the second perspective, the marketing strategy is equated with the corporate strategy. The third view describes the marketing strategy as the overriding or dominant functional strategy that the other strategies must follow. That is according to the compensation law of the planning of Erich Gutenberg especially the case when marketing is the main bottleneck in the company (usually in saturated markets).
If all companies apply the same strategies, known from theory (taught in business schools ) and practice, in the competition for customers and market share , they can hardly achieve a competitive advantage. That is why Costas Markides suggests a very simple definition of the term. Accordingly, a successful marketing strategy consists of five to six creative ideas on how to win this competition. See for example the competition in the market for smartphones .
Examples of basic marketing strategies are:
- Classification according to different perspectives:
- Growth: expansion, consolidation, contraction
- Competition: attack, defense, evasion, overtaking
- Portfolio: skimming, investment, segmentation, differentiation
- Integration: forward (towards the end product), backward (towards the raw material), lateral (both)
- Synergy: material, technology, sales or personnel-oriented
- Width: concentration (on core competencies), diversification (on several products and markets)
- Development: innovation, penetration (new segments for the same product), market development (creation of new markets or application possibilities), product development (new variants of products or services)
- Further possibilities of classification
Various analysis methods ( SWOT analysis , portfolio model , PIMS , gap analysis , experience curve , life cycle models, etc.) are used to find marketing strategies and their evaluation . These and other analyzes are intended to determine the company's initial situation as precisely as possible. This is followed by the descriptions and definitions of the objectives, the planning of the measures to achieve the objectives set, the implementation of the measures and the monitoring of success.
- This lemma arose from a synthesis of the following sources: Heribert Meffert u. a .: Marketing , 10th edition, Wiesbaden 2008, p. 20 f .; Philip Kotler / Kevin Keller: Marketing Management , 13th Edition, Upper Saddler River, 2009; Christian Homburg / Harley Krohmer: Marketingmanagement , 3rd edition, Wiesbaden 2009, p. 421 f.
- Costas Markides: Strategig Management - Overview. In: Stuart Crainer (ed.): Handbook of Management , London 1995, p. 126 f.
- Waldemar Pelz, Strategisches und Operatives Marketing, Norderstedt, 2004, p. 60
- Jochen Becker: Marketing concept. Basics of strategic and operational marketing management , 10th edition, Munich 2013