The lower Geodesy (including Applied Geodesy , practical geodesy , single-piece or detail survey , formerly practical geometry ; Engl .: surveying ) deals with the measurement of parts of the Earth's surface .
The term was coined by Friedrich Robert Helmert (1843-1917). He divided geodesy into lower geodesy and higher geodesy , which deals with the measurement of the whole earth including the determination of the earth's gravity field .
In the lower Geodesy limited parts as the Earth surveyed and mapped, which can within that small measurement areas curvature of the earth are often neglected and consequently with Cartesian coordinate systems ( UTM , Gauss Kruger , Soldner ) and without path reduction or a uniform for the survey area scale factor worked become.
In 1852 Friedrich Hartner published the first edition of his handbook and textbook on lower geodesy . This book was revised, expanded and reprinted at least eleven times by 1921. Hartner was responsible for the first four editions until 1872, later versions were taken over by Eduard Dolezal and Josef Wastler. The first edition comprised around 600 pages, the 1921 edition was published in two volumes with a total of over 1100 pages.
- Geodesy in the geoinformatics dictionary of the University of Rostock
- ^ The pantograph in historical publications from the 17th to 19th centuries: Friedrich Hartner 1852: Copiren der Plans . Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- ^ The pantograph in historical publications from the 17th to 19th centuries: Friedrich Hartner (1811–1877) . Retrieved February 26, 2016.