Deposit business

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Deposit business (or deposit business ) in banking is a banking business that consists in the acceptance of third-party funds as deposits or other unconditionally repayable funds from the public, regardless of whether interest is paid; the repayment claim must not consist of bearer or order bonds securitized result.


The acceptance of funds from foreign bank customers by cash payment or bank credit is included as a classic banking business in the legal definition of Section 1 (1) No. 1 KWG . This is also referred to as deposit business , as these transactions are reflected on the liabilities side of the bank's balance sheet . Since it is foreign money, the credit institutions are debtors and the bank customers are the creditors of the deposits. From a bank's point of view , deposits are therefore debt capital that, in contrast to non-banks (2 to 3 times), is significantly larger (10 to 15 times) than equity .

The deposit business is a prerequisite for the lending business , since the monies received serve to refinance the bank loans . The deposit business forms the basis for calculating the minimum reserves that credit institutions have to deposit with the Bundesbank. Through the passive business, the banks realize the task of the financial intermediary within the framework of banking management . The sediment theory and the maximum load theory are important for the passive business . While the dregs theory deals with the withdrawal habits of bank customers, the maximum load theory deals, among other things, with the illiquidity of many bank loans in the event of a bank run .


The deposit business can be structured as follows:

    Verbindlichkeiten gegenüber anderen Banken
      + täglich fällige Verbindlichkeiten (Kontokorrenteinlagen, Tagesgeld)
      + Einlagen mit vereinbarten Laufzeiten oder Kündigungsfristen
    Verbindlichkeiten gegenüber Kunden
      + Spareinlagen
      + Kontokorrenteinlagen
      + Einlagen mit vereinbarten Laufzeiten oder Kündigungsfristen
    = Summe Einlagengeschäft
      + verbriefte Verbindlichkeiten
        (aus begebenen Schuldverschreibungen wie Sparbriefe und sonstigen Geldmarktpapieren)
    = Summe Passivgeschäft


The term “deposit” is not defined by law. Deposits are understood to be the ongoing receipt of funds from a large number of donors who are not credit institutions, in loan or similar ways on the basis of typical contracts, whereby these funds may not be collateralized in the usual way. The EU directive on deposit protection systems understands this to mean "a credit balance that results from amounts remaining in an account or from intermediate positions in the context of normal banking transactions and is to be repaid by the credit institution in accordance with the applicable legal and contractual conditions, including a fixed-term deposit and a savings deposit". Liabilities in this form to banks and to non-banks are to be accounted for under these balance sheet items in accordance with Section 21 (1) and (2 ) of the Financial Institutions Accounting Ordinance (RechKredV). Securitized liabilities must also be shown separately in the balance sheet. This subheading also includes liabilities from registered bonds , order bonds that are not part of an overall issue, registered money market papers , credit balances from securities transactions and from clearing accounts as well as liabilities from bills of exchange sold, including their own drawings, which have not been billed to the borrowers . According to Section 9 (1) No. 3-6 RechKredV, the remaining terms in the deposit business are to be broken down into “up to 3 months”, “more than three months up to a year”, “more than one year up to 5 years” and “more than 5 years ".

Legal security

After § 4 para. 2 no. 1 of the Deposit Guarantee and Investor Compensation Act (EAEG) deposits are insured up to the amount of € 100,000 (since 1 January 2011), which are paid in compensation case, if a credit institution under § 5 EAEG not Is able to repay deposits. Deposits within the meaning of this law are credit balances with credit institutions that are to be repaid from amounts remaining in an account in the course of the business activities of an institution and on the basis of legal or contractual provisions. This also includes claims that the institute has securitized by issuing a certificate ( savings book ), but not bearer and order bonds. However, savings bank bonds are also secured like savings bank letters due to the bank security of the savings banks, Landesbanken and Landesbausparkassen . This also applies to bearer bonds that are subject to the protection scheme of the Federal Association of German Volksbanks and Raiffeisenbanks . Both bank guarantees also guarantee an unlimited amount of deposit protection.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Letter from the BAKred dated April 24, 1968
  2. EU Directive 2014/49 / EU of April 16, 2014, ABl. L 173/156