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In economics and banking management, a non-bank is generally understood to mean a buyer or supplier of money in real economic sectors, i.e. in particular private households , companies , the state and foreign countries , provided that they are not involved in the credit industry.


For the sake of simplicity, science and statistics have decided to choose a negation of the term banking with “non-banking” in order to make it clear that all sectors outside the banking industry are meant. The term is used to distinguish it from finance , i.e. the credit institutions including the central bank , especially the Bundesbank .

Statistical processing

The Bundesbank and other central banks use the term non-bank or non-MFI in their economic statistics to distinguish the monetary sector from the other sectors. In their respective statistics it holds as part of a aggregating together all sectors that are not part of the credit. The Federal Statistical Office defines non-banks as “private households including private non-profit organizations (e.g. associations, churches), companies (except banks) and public households”.


For example, the German EMU interest rate statistics are collected by the Deutsche Bundesbank and are a volume-weighted sample of around 200 banks and building societies (MFIs) based in Germany based on a uniform methodology. It has replaced the Bundesbank interest rate statistics that were valid until June 2003. The ECB proceeds in a similar way with its publications and distinguishes between the MFI and the non-MFI sector. Non-banks according to this aggregation are therefore all customers of credit institutions, unless they are themselves considered to be MFIs (e.g. in interbank trading ). A financial institution that accepts deposits , which according to the statistical definition of the European Central Bank count as part of the money supply , and that grants loans and / or invests in securities , automatically belongs to the MFIs. Even money market funds are therefore classed as MFIs. Although largely a financial organization by business purpose, insurance forms part of the non-banking sector . The actors in the non-banking sector also include private non-profit organizations (e.g. associations or churches).


In particular, three reasons for holding money for non-banks can be identified (see also money demand ):

  • Holding money for the processing of transactions ( transaction register in the narrower sense);
  • Holding money for security reasons to process unforeseen obligations ( precautionary fund , part of the transaction fund in the broader sense);
  • Holding money for speculative reasons to realize expected security price gains or avoid expected security price losses ( speculative fund ).

Individual evidence

  1. MFI is the official abbreviation for monetary financial institutions
  2. Deutsche Bundesbank banking statistics from September 29, 2011 ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive )