Production part acceptance procedure
The Production Part Approval Process (also part production release process, English Production Part Approval Process ; PPAP) is a method of the detached by the ATF 16949 QS 9000 , wherein the series parts to ensure the quality patterned are.
This procedure comes from the automotive industry and has been successfully implemented there for years. The quality is assured if the parts from the series tools or series processes correspond to the drawings . In addition to the supplied parts for inspection, the sampling ( english part submission warrant ; PSW) is a key element for the sampling process is in it all important information is grouped into requirements and tests and documented..
The exact procedure, for example when ordering parts and delivering them, can vary greatly from company to company. The same applies to the time of sampling . For example, safety-critical parts are sampled long before the start of series production, while other parts are only sampled immediately before production starts. However, all sampling has one thing in common: The division into 5 different levels of sampling.
Levels of sampling
- Level 1: Only the Part Submission Confirmation (PSW) is presented to the customer;
- Level 2: Part submission confirmation (PSW) with sample parts and limited supporting data are presented to the customer;
- Level 3: Part submission confirmation (PSW) with sample parts and comprehensive supporting data are presented to the customer;
- Level 4: Part Submission Confirmation (PSW) and other requirements as specified by the customer;
- Level 5: Part submission confirmation (PSW) with sample parts and complete supporting data are available for evaluation at the supplier's production site;
During the sampling, various stages are then defined, which provide a statement as to whether the parts meet the requirements, have to be reworked or even have to be requested from scratch. These stages are, however, determined individually depending on the company.
In principle, however, there are some essential requirements for the production part acceptance procedure that apply to all companies. This includes a representative production run. At the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG), this production run must last one to eight hours and include a specific production quantity of at least 300 consecutive parts.
Requirements for process engineering products
In addition, 19 additional requirements are described in the "Requirements for process engineering products" checklist ( English Bulk Material Requirements Checklist ):
- Design records ( english Design Records ): It must be a drawing by the client or the client created and maintained within the PPAP.
- Documents about technical changes ( English Engineering Change Documents ): All changes to the certified part must be documented.
- Technical Release ( English Customer Engineering Approval ): preliminary sample parts must be provided with which the customer can carry out initial tests. This is done before the PPAP is created.
- Construction Failure mode and effect analysis ( English Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis D-FMEA): to document all critical and error-prone steps of the construction must and this information communicated between suppliers and clients. This is sometimes critical when the supplier takes over the design, as he is reluctant to point out weak points in his design.
- Process flow diagrams (also: process flow plan, PAP; English Process Flow Diagrams ): The sequence of production including the inflow of all materials used must be shown in a process flow diagram.
- Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis ( English Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis P-FMEA): All critical and error-prone manufacturing steps must be documented and shared between supplier and customer.
- Control plan ( English Control Plan ): The P-FMEA results in the control plan , which defines how the named critical manufacturing steps can be checked in the incoming goods inspection or before assembly.
- Analysis of measurement systems ( English Measurement System Analysis Studies ): It is specified with which measurement systems the critical and influential manufacturing steps are controlled and to what extent these are subject to calibration.
- Measurement results ( English Dimensional Results ): All product characteristics, specifications, measurement results and the summary result, whether "OK" or "Not OK", are noted in a list.
- Material and performance tests ( English Records of Material, Performance Test Results ): All materials used, including their certificates, are summarized here and compared to the requirements from the construction. In addition, all tests that are carried out for the part must be summarized and documented. This includes both the type of test and its result. The results are checked by the quality management of the supplier e.g. B. confirmed by a signature.
- Sample test report ( English Initial Sample Inspection Report ) are created before a pattern part is produced from raw material samples.
- Investigations into the short-term capability of the processes ( English Initial Process Studies ): The step shows the statistical process control, in which the most critical steps are empirically considered. This serves to prove that critical manufacturing steps run stably, error-free and with the desired result.
- Documentation of a qualified laboratory ( English Qualified Laboratory Documentation ): All certificates of the test laboratory that carries out the tests carried out in step 10 are named here.
- Approval Report of appearance ( English Appearance Approval Report ; AAI) The AAI report is signed by the supplier. This only applies to parts for which only the appearance is decisive.
- Sample production parts ( English Sample Production Parts ): A sample series part is produced, which is recorded by image. In addition, the PPAP records where the sample remains (supplier or customer).
- Reference sample ( English Master Sample ): The sample is signed by the customer and supplier and can be used as a visual comparison for training new employees.
- Specific testing equipment ( English Checking Aids ): If special tools are required for the comparison, these are also taken by photo and their dimensions noted.
- Custom demands ( english Customer Specific Requirements ): Each customer has special requirements that are included in this section. Sometimes there are fixed requirements within certain regions or industries. Otherwise, individual requirements can also be listed here.
- Warrant ( English Part Submission Warrant ): Finally, the PPAP summarized and determined when it comes to resubmission. This can be at a fixed time interval or only become necessary in the event of a change.
This checklist is no longer part of the requirements since revision 4. It is listed in Appendix F of the PPAP regulation.
- Design Records. In: ppapdocuments.com. Retrieved May 16, 2019 .