Full scale

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term full control has different meanings depending on the objective of the control .

Studio technology


From a purely technical point of view, full modulation can be defined as reaching the highest level that can be transmitted without distortion . The very largest signal peak within a recording reaches exactly the modulation limit without distorting. The consequence of this procedure is that recordings with different levels of dynamic, played back one after the other, are perceived as differently loud. Inertia-free modulation meters are required to check such full modulation. In computer programs, this type of full scale is achieved with the normalization function .

In radio and television technology , full level control describes the achievement of the nominal or reference level . The term reference level here is part of an operating concept and is in direct proportion with the terms headroom (Engl. Headroom) and inertia of Aussteuerungsmessers to see. A level meter with defined properties is used for measurement .

In transmission chains such as television or radio, it would be desirable to achieve the same loudness for all contributions. The technical sound loudness is measured with a loudness meter. Here, too, the voltage reference level as full control is part of the operating concept. A reference level for full modulation according to loudness has not yet been agreed in a binding manner, there is neither sufficient operating experience nor is this device category sufficiently widespread.


Recordings whose full scale is at the reference level should have minimal distortion. With analog devices, full scale defines the point at which their playback properties are best. In the case of a signal with a relatively low level, noise leads to signal corruption; in the case of a signal with a level that is too high, nonlinear distortion increases, up to and including overdriving . Audio equipment for mixing is optimized for minimal distortion in the reference level.

The level display on a device shows that the full level has been exceeded by means of a yellow / red marking. The point of full scale is often also marked by 0 dBr and 100%.

Different usage

In the case of devices such as loudspeakers , the level is referred to as full modulation and can be transmitted without damage. Here, too, the voltage level is always meant. This definition is in contradiction to the above statement, the application of which could damage the device.

Outside of audio technology, the term full level occasionally refers to the maximum level that a system can process in regular operation.


  • Michael Dickreiter, Volker Dittel, Wolfgang Hoeg, Martin Wöhr (eds.): Manual of the recording studio technology . 8th, revised and expanded edition, 2 volumes. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-028978-7 .
  • Manfred Zollner, Eberhard Zwicker: Electroacoustics. 3rd edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1993, ISBN 3-540-56600-7 .
  • Stefan Weinzierl (Ed.): Handbook of audio technology. Springer Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-34300-4 .
  • Andreas Friesecke: The audio encyclopedia. A reference work for sound engineers, Saur, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-598-11774-9 .

See also

Web links