List of audio terms

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The list of audio terms provides a glossary of specific terms from audio engineering , recording studio technology and electroacoustics that are used in specialist literature .

Generally valid or indirect terms of the categories acoustics , physics , sound , electrical engineering , computer science , communication , ensembles , music theory and harmony are not listed . Components of the list of musical instruments are also not included here.



  1. see: Compressor - serves to limit the dynamic range of a signal.
  2. see: Audio data compression - denotes types of data compression in order to reduce the size of digital audio data.
  3. see also: Category: Audio Compression .
  • Audio level - see:  reference level - is an ambiguous, mostly volume-related term from the sound equipment.
  • Audio sink - The receiving part of an audio stream, such as headphones
  • Audio-source - The source of an audio stream, such as a microphone
  • Audio signal (also sound signal ) - is an electrical signal that carries acoustic information.
  • Audio transmitter - a transformer is called that is primarily used to transmit information from analog or digital audio signals.
  • Audio amplifier - a broadband, low-distortion amplifier for AC voltages in the audible low-frequency range i. d. Usually from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
  • Auditory perception - refers to the (human) sensory perception of sound.
  • In stereo recording technology , the recording area is the total angle in which the sound sources to be recorded are located.
  • Recording head - a magnetic head used to store sound signals in the magnetic layer of an audio tape .
  • Recording room - see: Recording studio → Recording room .
  • Recording studio - see: recording studio .
  • Recording angle - see:  Recording area .
  • Recording, magnetic - see: Magnetic recording .
  • Aural Exciter - a musical  effect device that artificially generatesthe high frequency portion of a audio signal.
  • Propagation - see Sound Propagation .
  • Auralization - a process that enables a room to be made audible, taking into account its geometric and acoustic properties.
  • Output resistance - The output resistance R i characterizes the output of an electronic device when the load changes.
  • Expansion area - the resulting total visible angle of the orchestral area, i.e. the boundaries of the music ensemble, from the standpoint of the microphone system.
  • Output impedance - see: Output resistance Ri. Also referred to as internal resistance or source resistance.
  • Ausleger (sound engineering) - support microphones that belong to the main microphone system.
  • Deflection amplitude - see: Deflection
  • Level control - This is what the setting of the electrical signal level is called in sound engineering.
  • Modulation range or modulation range is the range of instantaneous values ​​that the input variable of an arrangement has or may have if the specified conditions are complied with.
  • For the maximum level, see: Full level - Full level is considered to have reached the highest level that can be transmitted without distortion.
  • Level meter - a measuring device for checking the volume level of sound recordings.
  • Headroom , Eng .: headroom - is the difference between nominal level and technical maximum level.
  • Auto-Tune - automatic pitch correction
  • Autolocator - control device for tape machines.
  • AUX input - denotes a signal input for external devices.


  • B-weighting - see:  Frequency weighting .
  • Ribbon microphone - dynamic microphone in which the membrane is an aluminum strip folded in a zigzag.
  • Bathtub filters - special band-stop filters, which attenuate the middle frequency range of a  audio signal in relation to the low or high audio frequencies.
  • In a stereo amplifier, the balance control adjusts the ratio of the volume levels of the two audio channels to one another.
  • Balun - (English ba lanced- un balanced) is in audio engineering a component for conversion between a balanced signal and an unbalanced signal.
  • Bandwidth -  Filters are characterized by the bandwidth, the center frequency and the upper and lower limit frequency.
  • Bandpass , bandpass filter - a  filter that only allows signals of one frequency band to pass.
  • Bandstop filter - a  filter that attenuates a certain, mostly wide frequency band and, in borderline cases, does not let it pass.
  • Bark , Bark scale - a psychoacoustic scale for the perceived pitch.
  • Base width
  1. the real or virtual distance between the two required for stereophonic playback  speakers .
  2. the distance between two  microphones used for stereophonic recording .
  • Bass (acoustics) , bass range - the low-lying frequency range of the frequency spectrumthat can be heard by humans.
  • Bass reduction - the frequency-dependent reduction of the volume in the bass range of an  audio signal.
  • Bass boost - the frequency-dependent increase in volume in the bass range of a  audio signal.
  • Building acoustics - an area of ​​building physics and acoustics that deals with the effect of structural conditions on sound propagation.
  • Beamforming - as a miking process (microphone array, "acoustic telescope") - is used for. B. used when measurements in the vicinity of the target are not possible, such. B. with landing aircraft.
  • Bel - an auxiliary unit of measurement for marking levels. Mostly used as decibel (dB), i.e. 1/10 bel.
  • Public address , public address system - electrical systems that  amplify audio signals and  make them accessible to human perception using loudspeakers.
  • Public address technology - see: Category: Public address technology .
  • Rating level - a measure to identify the sound immission acting on a location.
  • Weighted sound pressure level - term used in acoustic measurement technology, see:  Sound pressure level.
  • Weighting filter , evaluation curve - the terms  frequency weighting is used in the measurement of noise.
  • Reference level
  1. a level is referred to as a reference level if it relates to a specific level specification. For example, the reference level for the level unit dBu can be 0 dBu = 775 mV (effective).
  2. the reference level can be a level for which a certain device, an input, an output or an entire device chain is designed, here the reference level is the same as the nominal level.
  • Reference sound pressure - see:  SPL .
  • Reference voltage - see:  reference level .
  • Reference value (acoustics) - denotes the reference value that is used when specifying levels for a physical quantity commonly used in acoustics.
  • Bias - premagnetization in tape recorders and cassette recorders, whereby a high-frequency alternating current is sentthrough the  recording head (speaking head SK) in addition to the audio signal.
  • Binaural , binaural sound recording - recording of sound signals with  microphones, which are intended to produce a hearing impression with precise directional localization when played back via headphones.
  • Bit rate - describes the ratio of an amount of data to a time, measured in bits per second, abbreviated as bits / s or bps.
  • Bit depth - see:  Sampling depth .
  • Blauert's bands - acoustic frequency ranges that are important for human directional hearing in the median plane (front, top, back ...).
  • Blumlein microphone method , Blumlein stereophony - see: Blumlein stereo system , a method of stereo recording technology.
  • BNC connector - used in digital recording studio technology; see: word clock .
  • brown noise - see: 1 / f² noise , noise with an amplitude curve inversely proportional to the square of the frequency.
  • Hum loop - see: Ground loop , a ground connection closed to form a loop.
  • Bundling factor - a technical parameter of  speakers and  microphones.
  • Degree of bundling - indicates the bundling ability of the sound with  loudspeakers,  microphones and individual sound sources in the diffuse  sound field.
  • Bundling measure - makes a statement about the noise suppression with  microphones.
  • Bypass , bypass effect , bypass switching - a bypass ensures that e.g. B. with  effect devices, the incoming signal bypasses the sound processing, so it remains unchanged. This is usually done either on request (bypass switch or button), or automatically when a device is switched off.


  • C-weighting - see:  Frequency weighting .
  • Capstan - the drive shaft in tape machines.
  • CCIR equalization - see:  Equalization , lowering or raising of frequency ranges.
  • CD , Compact Disc ( Compact Disc Digital Audio ) - an optical storage medium.
  • Cent - logarithmic unit of measure for musical intervals.
  • Chorus - a sound effect that characterizes a tone as if a second, similar tone were also being played at the same time.
  • Cinch , cinch plug ( RCA jack ) - widely used, slang term for non-standardized connectors (here :) for asymmetrical transmission of  audio signals.
  • Clipping - see  Oversteering .
  • Compact Disk - see CD for short is an optical digital storage medium.
  • Crest factor - see crest factor , describes in electrical measurement technology the ratio of the crest value to the effective value of an alternating quantity and is always greater than or equal to 1. Used in communications engineering, sound engineering and acoustics.
  • Crossfader - sliding resistance on mixing consoles to cross-fade two  audio signals.
  • Crosstalk - see: crosstalk .
  • Cue Mix - a separate mix for the control monitors.
  • Cutoff - see:  Cutoff frequency .


  • D-weighting - see:  Frequency weighting .
  • Attenuation - see: Soundproofing .
  • Damping factor - is the quotient of input resistance and output resistance. The damping factor for the adaptation damping at the "interface" from the power amplifier to the loudspeaker is particularly important.
  • Attenuator - an element that is placed in the signal path to reduce the signal's amplitude or level.
  • Daisy chain - (English, literally "daisy chain") - describes a number of hardware components that are connected in series. Example: MIDI .
  • Data transfer rate , also: data transfer rate - describes the digital data volume that is transferred within a unit of time.
  • Data transfer rate - see: Data transfer rate .
  • DA converter (digital-analog converter) - see:  Digital-analog converter - device for converting digital into analog  audio signals.
  • DAW
  1. Abbreviation for  Digital Audio Workstation .
  2. Abbreviation for digital-to-analog converter (rare), see:  digital-to-analog converter .
  • dB - see: Bel (unit) .
  • dB (A) , dB (C) , dBm , dBu , dBV - see: Bel (unit) → use with other units of measurement, appendices .
  • dBFS - Abbreviation for “decibel full scale”, unit of the absolute logarithmic scale in a digital audio system.
  • DC offset -  unwanted DC voltage component contained in the audio signal.
  • Decay Rate - Decay rate of the envelope, see:  ADSR .
  • Decca Tree - a type of stereo recording technique.
  • Deemphasis - see: Pre-Emphasis , a process for reducing noise that occurs more intensely at high frequencies.
  • De-Esser - ↓ Effect  device to reduce the sibilants (sibilants) contained in a recording of speech or song.
  • Delay - a transit time delay that isspecifically usedin sound design .
  • Demo recording - see Demo recording → Music industry
  • Clarity , also: degree of clarity - a term used to identify the audibility of rooms.
  • Of definition - see: Klarheitsmaß is a measure to determine the clarity in language or the transparency in music.
  • Decibel - see: Bel (unit) .
  • DI box (abbreviation for D irect I njection) - a device that converts an unbalanced signal to a balanced signal.
  • Difference Tone Factor - is a dimensionless measure of nonlinear distortion.
  • Diffuse field - also statistical sound field - describes a  room sound characterized by reflections , see also: Diffusity .
  • Diffuse field equalization - linearization of the frequency response for a pressure microphone .
  • Diffusivity - generally describes the degree of distribution of reflected sound from a source in space and over time.
  • Diffuse sound - see: ↓ Room  sound .
  • Digital-to-analog converter - device for converting digital to analog  audio signals.
  • Digital audio - Term for digitized  audio signals.
  • Digital Audio Tape - is a digital audio magnetic tape (audiotape) for short called DAT , for corresponding audio recorders (DAT recorders).
  • Digital Audio Workstation - computerized system for sound recording, music production, mixing and mastering.
  • Digital signal processor (DSP) - is used for the continuous processing of digital signals.
  • DIN plug - slang term for round plug connections according to DIN.
  • Dipole - see: Dipole (loudspeaker) is a sound transducer that radiates the sound energy evenly both forwards and backwards. The figure-of-eight characteristic of a microphone is also a dipole.
  • Direct Stream Digital - a method of high-resolution audio signal storage based on the principle of delta-sigma modulation (DSD).
  • Direct field - see:  direct sound .
  • Direct sound - in contrast to  room sound, the sound in a closed room that is the first to arrive at the listening location.
  • Distortion - a  effects device, see distortion .
  • Dither , dithering - describes a method that can reduce the effects of quantization errors in digital audio technology.
  • Dolby Digital - a multi-channel process.
  • Dolby Lossless - see  Meridian Lossless Packing .
  • Dolby Surround - stereo-compatible multi-channel process.
  • Dolby Surround Prologic - stereo-compatible multi-channel process.
  • Doppler effect - temporal compression or expansion of a signal when the distance between transmitter and receiver changes during the duration of the signal.
  • Three-to-one rule - rule for microphone placement to minimize audible comb filter effects .
  • Pressure receiver - see: Pressure microphone .
  • Pressure gradient receiver , see: Pressure gradient microphone , describes a microphone design with regard to its acoustic functionality.
  • Pressure microphone - describes a microphone design with regard to its acoustic functionality.
  • Pressure accumulation , pressure accumulation effect , pressure increase - occurs when sound is reflected off an obstacle and is superimposed on its own reflection.
  • DSP - is used for the continuous processing of digital signals.
  • DTS - Abbreviation for "Digital Theater System", refers to a multi-channel sound system.
  • Ducking - the automatic highlighting of an audio signal by lowering the remaining channels.
  • Duplex Theory - This theory goes a long way toward understanding what happens naturally in human hearing.
  • Transparency - a term from musicology that sound engineering has adopted.
  • Transparency , also:  Transparency - expression under which one z. B. understandsthe distinguishability of temporally successive tones as time transparency despite superimposed room sound.
  • DVD-Audio - a DVD variant that is mainly used to play music in ↓ Surround  sound    5.1.
  • Dynamic range - also: dynamic , dynamic range or contrast range - indicates the range of an audio system to, in which the level of the sound signal can move profitably, whether for recording, transmission or reproduction; Will i. d. Usually givenin dB .
  • Dynamics processor - a  effects device that affects the volume of a signal.
  • Dynamic microphone - electroacoustic transducer that inductively converts sound pressure pulses into equivalent electrical voltage pulses.


  • EBU recommendation R 128 - is a technical set of rules that defines the sound control of radio and television programs.
  • Echo - occurs when reflections of a sound wave are delayed so much that this soundcan be perceivedas a separate auditory event .
  • Echo chamber - is an architectural component of many recording studios in analog sound technology and is used to generate or amplify the reverberation.
  • Echo threshold - describes the time difference that sound reflections are just allowed to have in order to be perceivedas an echo after the direct sound.
  • Corner frequency (ger .: cutoff frequency) - see:  cutoff frequency .
  • Effects device - a device for changing an audio signal.
  • RMS value - abbreviation RMS for R oot M ean S quare - is the average power over a given frequency band, whereby the signal from which the RMS power is calculated represents pink noise within the frequency band. See: Music performance → term RMS performance .
  • Self-noise
  1. (Microphones), see: Equivalent noise level .
  2. (Devices), see: Noise floor .
  • Insertion - English. Insertion Loss - indicates the attenuation of a signal by a component that is inserted into a signal path. This can be, for example, a filter or a plug connection.
  • Input resistance - The input resistance R a is at the input of an electrical device and loads the source device, which supplies its voltage to this input.
  • Grinding in - If z. For example, if an  effects device is looped into a signal path, it will be separated and the  audio signal passed through it.
  • Settling process - This is e.g. B. the bow painting of a string, which clearly identifies the sound of an instrument to our ears.
  • Elastic suspension - in the microphone placement - see: Elastic suspension → microphone spider .
  • Electret microphone , also: electret condenser microphone - an alternative type of → condenser microphone .
  • Electrical crosstalk - see: Crosstalk .
  • Electroacoustics - generic term for technical devices that are used to convert, process, record and reproduce acoustic events.
  • Electroacoustic system , ELA - is a sound system.
  • Elevation - effect in the stereophony in loudspeaker stereo listening in the stereo triangle.
  • Elongation receiver - microphone in which the electrical quantity generated is proportional to the deflection of the mechanical system.
  • Emission - see sound emission , cf. also emission (environment) .
  • Sensitivity of a microphone - the output voltage in relation to the incident  sound pressure.
  • Emphasis - see: Pre-Emphasis , method for reducing noise that occurs more intensely at high frequencies.
  • Power amplifier , also: power amplifier - the last amplifying stage of a power amplifier.
  • Distance hearing, also: distance localization - an estimating determination with the ear of how far a sound source is from the listener.
  • Equalizer - see: Equalizer .
  • Equalization preamplifier - combination of equalizer and preamplifier; stands i. d. R. for: Phono preamplifier - a technical component for playing back records.
  • Equalization - targeted lowering or raising of certain frequency ranges.
  • EQ , equalizer - a  filter as a device or electronic component for sound design and  equalization of sound frequencies.
  • Ground loop - a ground connection closed in a loop.
  • Equivalent noise level, also: S / N ratio - this is the term used to describe the inherent noise of microphones.
  • Expander - a control amplifier for suppressing background noise and for sound shaping.


  • Fade , fade-in , fade-out - time-perceptible raising or lowering of volume levels.
  • Fader - Term for sliding potentiometers on audio devices, especially on mixers.
  • Fake Surround - sound productions in which stereo productions are converted to  5.1 surround mixes.
  • Convolution reverb - acoustic reverberation effect that uses a computer system to computeimages of real rooms using audio signals.
  • Spring reverb - electro-mechanical hall effect device.
  • Feedback - engl. for: acoustic feedback , an audio effect by forming a feedback loop, e.g. B. between an amplified microphone signal and the loudspeakers that reproduce the same.
  • Feedback cancellation - various methods of suppressing acoustic feedback.
  • Field operation transfer factor , also: field transfer factor - the → sensitivity with which the  sound pressure of microphones is converted into electrical signal voltage.
  • Far field - defines a distance range during the propagation of a sound wave (opposite: near field).
  • Television signal - method of transmitting images and sound. (Unfortunately, the article does not deal with the tone separately.)
  • Filter - A circuit or device that alters a signal in amplitude and phase based on frequency.
  • Filter quality - see:  Q factor.
  • Filter envelope - frequency-dependent  ADSR envelope.
  • Filter center frequency - see: Center frequency , the geometric mean between the lower and the upper  limit frequency of a frequency band.
  • Finalizer - often used synonymously for: Limiter , extreme form of the compressor with a ratio of infinity to 1.
  • Flanger - a  effects device that producesa "spacey" soundthrough varying interferences and a comb filter effect .
  • Edge steepness - in electro-acoustics: the steepness of the range ends of  filters, expressed in decibels per octave (dB / oct).
  • Whispering cone - see: speaking tube - is a device that directs the propagation of sound and thus improves the intelligibility, especially of spoken language, even at a greater distance between the listener and the speaker.
  • Aircraft noise - see Aircraft noise → Sound measurement .
  • FM synthesis - (frequency modulation synthesis ), technical modulation method based on frequency modulation.
  • FOH , Front of House - In public address technology: the point in the auditorium where the sound engineer or the mixer is located.
  • Fourier Analysis - The fast Fourier transformation (FFT) plays an important role in digital signal processing. An example of such a process is a piece of music from which 44,100 amplitude values ​​of the audio signal are sampled per second at the output of a microphone for storage on a conventional audio CD.
  • Formant - the concentration of acoustic energy in a specific frequency range.
  • Franssen effect - observation of the localization of sound sources in reverberant surroundings.
  • Free field - a sound situation in which no reflections occur.
  • Free field equalization - linearization of the frequency response of a pressure microphone that is in the free  sound field.
  • Free field frequency response - describes the frequency response of a microphone in → free field , see: binaural sound recording → diffuse field equalization and free field equalization .
  • External voltage distance - ratio between useful voltage and external voltage of a transmission system for acoustic signals; see.  Signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Frequency - The frequency of a tone or sound determines its pitch. Compare: frequency spectrum .
  • Frequency resolution - describes the smallest frequency difference between two tones that can still be distinguished.
  • Frequency range - see: Transmission range , is determined by the lower  limit frequency and the upper limit frequency.
  • Frequency weighting - used when measuring noise.
  • Equal Tuning Frequencies - A list of the frequencies of all the notes on the piano keyboard in equal tuning .
  • Frequency spectrum - also spectrum, spectral distribution or, in connection with time-dependent signals, rarely frequency response - is a function that depends on the frequency. Its amount is called the amplitude spectrum , its phase angle is called the phase spectrum .
  • Frequency vibrato in music is the periodically recurring, slight change in the frequency of a sustained note. Unlike a non-vibrating sound, a sound with adequate vibrato is perceived as being alive. This is why vibrato is widely used in classical music.
  • Crossover divides an electrical signal containing different frequencies into two or more outputs, at each of which different parts (frequency bands) of the entire original frequency spectrum emerge.
  • Early decay time - a parameter of room acoustics.
  • Early reflections - in room acoustics: the portion of the reflected sound that arrives at a listenerafter the direct sound.
  • Fuzzbox - a  effects device, mostly for changing the sound of an electric guitar.





  • Jecklin Disk , Jecklin disk - device for making stereo recordings.
  • Jitter - describes the timing jitter during the transmission of digital signals (fluctuation in accuracy in the transmission rate).


  • Comb filter , comb filter effect - a  filter that filters groups of signals of a certain frequency.
  • Characteristic sound pressure - denotes the  sound pressure that a loudspeaker generates when supplying 1 W signal power at a distance of one meter.
  • Notch filter - an electronic  filter with which frequencies within a narrow frequency range can be filtered out.
  • Club characteristic ,clubdirectional characteristic- describes the club-shaped directional characteristic of a microphone.
  • Sound , In acoustics and music theory, the terms tone and sound are handled differently.
  • Timbre , even Timbre - is in the music of one of the parameters of the single tone and is determined by its sound spectrum .
  • Tone color difference , tone color difference , see: Spectral difference .
  • Sound filter - see: Equalizer .
  • Sound design - see: Sound design.
  • Sound body area - see: Expansion area .
  • Tone control (English: tone control) - indicates the electronic filter circuits to which the tone of the audio reproduction can be adjusted.
  • Sound spectrum - The term sound spectrum describes the sound spectrum or the frequency spectrum of musical sounds .
  • Sound synthesis - a method of making artificial or modifying natural sounds.
  • Sound balance - function to be able to set with a single potentiometer whether the bass or the treble should be preferred.
  • Sound fidelity - describes the ability of an electro-acoustic transmission system to reproduce a recorded sound image in such a way that there is no difference between the original and the reproduction.
  • Clarity ,degree of clarity - a measure to determine the clarity (  transparency) in speech or the transparency in music.
  • Small diaphragm microphone , small condenser (coll.) - condenser microphone with a small diaphragm.
  • Jack plug - electrical plug connector widely used in audio technology, mostly as a 6.3 mm version ("Jack").
  • Harmonic distortion , harmonic distortion , Klirrdämpfungsmaß - (logarithmic, defined in decibels or Napier size) - a measure of distortion caused by nonlinear components.
  • Total harmonic distortion , total harmonic distortion - (specified as dimensionless ratio) - measure of undesired distortion of an originally sinusoidal alternating signal.
  • Stick stereophony - this is the uncomplicated merging of mono sound sources to form a stereo loudspeaker panorama with the help of panpots.
  • Structure-borne sound - is sound that propagates in a solid.
  • Structure-borne sound recorder , structure-borne sound microphone - is an electro-acoustic converter for structure-borne sound measurement.
  • Coherence - (see Incoherence) - In sound engineering, coherence refers to two signals of the same curve shape (but possibly different amplitudes ).
  • Carbon microphone - microphone with an electroacoustic transducer principle based on changes in the contact resistance of graphite parts.
  • Coincidence microphone - is a stereo microphone with two  directional microphone capsules.
  • Combination tone - combination tones can arise when two different tones are played at the same time.
  • Compressor - device to reduce the dynamic range of an  audio signal.
  • Condenser microphone - uses the capacitance changes caused by changes in the distance between the membrane and the counter electrode.
  • Contact microphone - Piezoelectric pickups - Mechanical pressure or structure-borne sound of the sound body creates an electrical voltage.
  • Control room - the room of a recording studio where the sound engineer or mixer is located.
  • Head-related transfer function , see: HRTF .
  • Headband microphone - see: Microphone , cf. also: headset .
  • Headphones - are small loudspeakers that fit directly to the ears and are worn on the head with a clamp.
  • Headphone stereophony - see: Binaural sound recording .
  • Copy effect - the transmission of the signal to neighboring windings when tapes are wound on reels.
  • Switching network - cf.  patch panel.
  • Correlation - cf. ↓ Correlation meter.
  • Correlation Meter - A measuring device used to determine relationships between the two stereo channels. Used to find phase cancellations.
  • Power amplifier - Term from the tube age and describes devices with a powerful output stage.
  • Omnidirectional , omnidirectional directional characteristic - spherical directional characteristic of a microphone. See: Directional characteristics → Microphones .
  • Omnidirectional microphone - provides a type of separator stereophony in which the sound recording is mimicked by the human ear.
  • Spherical wave - is a wave that spreads regularly and evenly from a source in all spatial directions in strictly concentric fronts.
  • Shelving Filter - Filter curve named after the shape.
  • Artificial head - cf. Binaural dummy head recordings ; Spatial sound → artificial head stereophony ; Localization (acoustics) .
  • Curves of equal volume level = “Isophone” - compare: Volume .



  • Magnetic tape , magnetic tape - a data carrier; usually consists of a long, narrow sheet of plastic coated with a magnetizable material.
  • Magnetic head - component that is used to write, read and / or erase magnetic storage media / data carriers.
  • Sheath current filter - a component that prevents either a hum loop or the propagation of high-frequency, unwanted common-mode signals on coaxial cables.
  • Masking effect - psychoacoustic phenomenon, after which humans can only perceive certain frequency components in a noise to a reduced extent.
  • Masterfader - refers to the two sliders (L + R) for setting the total volume on the mixer. see: Mixer → Function groups .
  • Mastering - the final processing of sound recordings and the final step in music production before the sound carrier is created.
  • Mechanical filter - an analog  filter for selecting and suppressing certain frequency components from the spectrum of a signal.
  • Megaphone - see: mouthpiece → Megaphone .
  • Multi-channel sound system - The aim of multi-channel sound systems is to enable a spatial sound experience that is as realistic as possible, the spatial sound .
  • Mel - Mel This is the measure of the psychoacoustic variable tonality and describes the perceived pitch.
  • Diaphragm tuning - also microphone tuning - see: Microphone tuning.
  • Meridian Lossless Packing - a proprietary, lossless compression algorithm for digital sound recordings.
  • MIDI - see:  Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
  • Microphone - a sound transducer that converts airborne sound as alternating sound pressure vibrations into corresponding electrical voltage changes as a microphone signal.
  • Microphone distance - see: microphone base .
  • Microphone tuning - Describes the tuning (high, low or mid-tuned) of the membrane of a microphone to the transmission range and the directional characteristicto be generated.
  • Microphone arrangement - or a microphone system - consists in the simplest case with stereo recording of two microphones, which form a system with regard to a required imaging width on the stereo loudspeaker base.
  • Microphone array - see: Beamforming.
  • Microphone structure - see:  Microphone installation , see also: Microphone .
  • Microphone recording area - see:  Recording area .
  • Microphone placement - see:  Microphone placement .
  • Microphone base - is the distance between two microphones in a stereo microphone system.
  • Microphone characteristics - see:  Directional characteristics .
  • Microphone data - umbrella term for the characteristics of a microphone, such as B. limit sound  pressure , directional characteristic,  signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Microphone sensitivity - see:  Transfer factor .
  • Microphone - an undesirable effect in which non-microphones work unintentionally as sound transducers and thus cause interference. Incorrectly used synonymously for microphone types, microphone transducer principles, microphone arrangements or miking.
  • Microphones - refers to the selection and installation of suitable microphones for a current recording situation.
  • Microphone capsule - an integral part of the microphone .
  • Microphone diaphragm - the common microphone design is followed by a thin, elastically mounted diaphragm to the pressure fluctuations of the sound.
  • Microphone polar pattern- see: # directional pattern.
  • Microphone signal - a low-level microphone audio signal with electrical voltages in the millivolt range.
  • Microphone spider - see: Microphone → Microphone spider .
  • Microphone system - see:  Microphone arrangement .
  • Microphone technology - see: Category: Microphone technology .
  • Microphone amplifier - an internal component of condenser and electret microphones, which is located directly behind the microphone capsule in the signal flow.
  • Microphone curtain , see: boom (sound engineering) .
  • Microphone preamplifier - a device or electronic circuit that amplifies the weak signal voltage at the output of a microphone after the microphone impedance converter to usable values.
  • Microphone windscreen - foam cover for microphones; works against low-frequency sound components of swirling air movements (wind) and human pronunciation.
  • MiniDisc - is a magneto-optical storage medium developed by Sony for the digital recording and playback of music and speech.
  • Mixing console - technical device (device or software) for combining different audio signals in a group, usually in a stereo signal.
  • Positive feedback - see Positive feedback .
  • Recording - in the audio sector, the sound recording of a musical performance of any kind is called.
  • Middle - frequencies in the range between about 400 and 4000 Hertz are used in sound processing.
  • Center frequency - the geometric mean between the lower and the upper cut-off frequency of a frequency band with a certain filter bandwidth.
  • MLP - see Meridian Lossless Packing .
  • Modes - in physics describes the stationary properties of standing waves and also of continuous waves with regard to their energy distribution in different directions.
  • Modulation -
  1. (Sound engineering)  audio signal.
  2. (electronic music) Sound change through a  effects device.
  • Monitoring - the targeted sound reinforcement of artists or sound engineers with specific monitor speakers or systems.
  • Monitor , monitor loudspeaker - specially designed control loudspeakers for the required application. See: Monitoring .
  • Mono compatibility - is the positive auditory assessment of the sound of a music production with mono reproduction of the stereo signal.
  • MP3 - short for MPEG-1 or 2, Audio Layer III - a method for lossy compression of digitally stored audio data.
  • MP3 player - player or software for MP3 encoded digital audio data.
  • MS stereo - see MS stereophony.
  • MS stereophony , MS stereophony system - a stereophonic signal coding method. The stereo channels are not in accordance with the conventional channels left L and right R, but according to the center-channel M and side-channel S separately.
  • Mulm - a common expression in sound engineering for acoustically dark, blurred and unclear.
  • Multicore - audio cable that contains several, individual signal lines (wires), which are also referred to as "channels" or "paths".
  • Multimikrofonierung - see  Polymikrofonierung
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface - MIDI - digital interface for musical instruments - is an industry standard for the exchange of musical control information between electronic musical instruments .
  • Musical acoustics - is a scientific subject that encompasses both individual areas of acoustics and musicology.
  • Musical parameters - in music denotes elementary aspects such as duration, pitch and intensity or volume.
  • Music performance - is a non-standardized performance indicator often used in advertising for audio equipment.
  • Music production - is the manufacturing process of a musical work that is basically intended for publication.
  • Music signal see: Audio signal .
  • Music transmission - generic term for all techniques and processes in connection with recording and sound studio technology.
  • Music Perception - see: Universals of Music Perception .
  • Mute , muting - switching off an audio channel without having to change any other settings.


  1. For loudspeakers: the maximum permissible continuous power consumption when fed with a pink noise according to DIN 45324.
  2. For audio amplifiers: the maximum electrical power that can be supplied in a defined load impedance (usually 2 ... 8 ohms) when fed with pink noise according to DIN 45324.



  1.  Attenuator in the channel input, with which the sensitivity is reduced, usually by −20 dB.
  2. Pressure-sensitive impact or contact surface on MIDI input devices (MIDI controllers), electronic drums, etc.


  • Q factor , Q value , Q , also quality factor, quality, circular quality, resonance sharpness, resonant circuit quality, pole quality →
  1. is a measure of the damping of an oscillating system, e.g. B. a filter. See: figure of merit .
  2. With a filter (e.g. with a parametric equalizer ) is a value or a controller for influencing the frequency band to be processed.
  • Quadrofonie - form of multi-channel recording.
  • Quantization - is the name given to the process with which z. B. MIDI notes can be shifted to a point in time in the musical sequence given by the quantization grid.
  • Quantization noise - certain disturbances in the digitization of analog signals.
  • Quasi -peak value - peak value detector for measuring electrical signals in the frequency range from 9 kHz to 1 GHz.
  • Source resistance - see:  Output resistance .



  1. (Acoustics) certain aspects of the sound behavior of sound generators.
  2. (Electronic music) the third phase of the (see:  ADSR) envelope.


  • Clock head - the analog  recording head (speaking head SK) is called when it is used temporarily as a playback head (listening head).
  • Talkback - This allows you to speak from the mixer with a microphone into the monitors, with the actual signal being lowered.
  • Plunger coil - a (magnetic) coil that is resiliently suspended in a stationary magnetic field and that is deflected by the Lorentz force when current flows through it.
  • Moving coil microphone - see: Dynamisches_Mikrofon → Moving coil microphone .
  • Partial tone - see:  Overtone .
  • Partial series see: Overtone → The overtone series .
  • Threshold - in a compressor or limiter, the starting point of compression
  • THD , Total Harmonic Distortion - a specification used to quantify the size of the components that result from non-linear distortion of an acoustic signal.
  • Depth gradation - an illusion in stereo sound recording (stereo mix) based on distance hearing.
  • Low-pass filters -  filters, which allow signal components with frequencies below their cut-off frequency to pass (almost) unattenuated, while attenuating components with higher frequencies.
  • Woofer - see: Subwoofer .
  • Timbre - one of the parameters of the single tone; is determined by its sound spectrum as well as the temporal course of the frequency spectrum and the volume.
  • Timecode - see: MIDI timecode , SMPTE timecode ,  word clock , timecode (video).
  • Time stretching - describes changing the playback speed of existing audio material without changing the pitch.
  • Sound - sound event to which the human ear can assign a more or less exact pitch.
  • Pickup , pickup system - electroacoustic converter that converts mechanical vibrations or a needle in a record groove into an electrical voltage (  audio signal).
  • Tone supply - is used to supply power to condenser microphones.
  • Tone audiogram - describes the subjective hearing ability for tones, i.e. the frequency-dependent hearing sensitivity of a person.
  • Sound recording - refers to the recording and reproduction of sound, i.e. noises, tones, music and speech, with audio recorders.
  • Sound recording technology - synonymous with sound technology .
  • Sound recording - see: Sound recording .
  • Audio tape - (magnetic tape) is a steel, paper or plastic tape that is coated with magnetic substances; as a magnetic storage medium for  audio signals.
  • Tone control - see: tone controls .
  • Tone duration - one of the musical parameters relating to the individual tone or sound and indicates its time interval.
  • Sound generation - see: Sound generation .
  • Audio frequency generator - device that generates an electrical signal in the frequency range that can be heard by humans.
  • Sound mixture - term from electronic music; denotes sound that is composed of several partials.
  • Tone generator - see: Tone frequency generator .
  • Sound Design (Engl. Sound design) is the creative work with sounds.
  • Tonality - occurs when individual tones can be heard within a noise.
  • Tonicity - see: Mel - The mel is the unit of measurement for the psychoacoustic quantity of tonicity.
  • Pitch - There are different definitions for the term pitch.
  • Pitch change - change the pitch, e.g. B. using a digital audio workstation . With acoustic musical instruments, glissando describes a sliding change in pitch.
  • Pitch Sensing , Pitch Perception - see: Pitch .
  • Sound engineer - (English sound engineer, audio engineer) is a technical profession in the fields of sound engineering, studio and recording technology, signal processing, acoustics and computer music.
  • Sound head - generic term for the speech, listening or combination heads of tape recorders, video recorders and film projectors used for sound recording or sound reproduction.
  • Tonkutscher coll. For sound engineer .
  • Sound engineer - occupation in the field of tension between art and technology. The main activity corresponds to that of a unit manager.
  • Sound control room , sound control room - see: recording studio .
  • Sound signal - see:  Audio signal .
  • Soundtrack - in analogue recordings, the recording strip that takes up a certain proportion of the entire width of a tape.
  • Recording studio - a facility for recording and editing sound events.
  • Recording studio technology - see: recording studio , also: audio technology .
  • Sound technology - generic term for technical devices that are used to convert, edit, record (store) and reproduce acoustic events (sound).
  • Sound engineer - in the original job description , he operated technical equipment that was used for sound recording , processing and reproduction ( sound engineering ).
  • Sound carriers - umbrella term for technical media for storing and transmitting acoustic signals, in particular music and speech.
  • Total Harmonic Distortion - see: THD.
  • Trading - the balancing of different perceptual effects while listening.
  • Transients - a very fast, impulsive, electrical or acoustic transient process is called transients.
  • Transient designer - devices that allow the targeted processing of the transients of a  audio signal.
  • Transparency - an expression by which, in musical sound presentations in closed rooms, one understands the differentiation of temporally successive tones as time transparency and simultaneously played instruments as register transparency despite superimposed  room sound.
  • Treble - A tone control for high frequencies.
  • Tremolo - refers to an electronically or mechanically generated periodic change in volume.
  • Separator - A separator plays a role in stereo recording technology for main microphone recordings by omnidirectional microphones.
  • Trigger - the triggering of a change in an existing signal and also the triggering of a new signal.
  • Impact sound - a sound that is created by the movement of people on a floor.
  • Impact sound filter - see: high pass .
  • Impact sound insulation - soundproofing impact sound.
  • Tuchel plug - slang term for screwable DIN plug, known as "Kleintuchel" and "Großtuchel".
  • Tweeter - a loudspeaker for high frequencies.


  1. Electrical crosstalk (ger .: crosstalk, XT ) unwanted interference actually independent signal channels (including of consumer electronics).
  2. Acoustic crosstalk - musical instruments speak acoustically, such as B. when recording the drums, the hi-hat on the snare microphone.



  • Perceptibility threshold - see: Hearing threshold .
  • Wah-Wah - an electronic  effects device that is primarily used to influence the sound of an electric guitar.
  • Wall of Sound - is the term used in music production to describe the pop music created by the producer Phil Spector (high sound density, intensive use of audio effects).
  • Converter coll. short for DA converter and AD converter .
  • Underwater Sound - is transmitted in the water is sound. The associated specialty of acoustics is hydroacoustics.
  • Wavetable synthesis - this is a simplified form of the generation of acoustic tones.
  • Weber-Fechner law - states that the subjectively perceived strength of sensory impressions is proportional to the logarithm of the objective intensity of the physical stimulus.
  • Alternating pressure - see: Sound pressure .
  • white noise - noise with constant power per unit of bandwidth, theoretically from 0 Hz (DC voltage) to infinitely high frequencies; Band-limited in practice.
  • Wave belly - see:  Standing wave .
  • Wave mountain - see:  Standing wave .
  • Wave field synthesis - is a spatial audio reproduction process with the aim of creating virtual acoustic environments.
  • Wavefront - a surface on which all points have the same transit time to a transmitter, e.g. B. a sound source.
  • Wave speed - term for the speed of movement of a wave in physics. Compare: sound velocity , sound velocity .
  • Wave knot - see:  Standing wave .
  • Wavelength - The human ear is sensitive in a wavelength range from a maximum of around 17 mm to 21 m (this corresponds to frequencies of around 16 to 20,000 Hertz).
  • Wave shadows - see: Sonic shadows .
  • WFS see: wave field synthesis.
  • Winding core - in the professional field, a tape is not wound onto a reel, but onto a winding core (bobby).
  • Playback head - (also hearing head) is a magnetic head and component of a tape recorder.
  • WiSA technology - Lossless audio transmission from the Wireless Speaker and Audio Association (WiSA), one of the first to be implemented and marketed by Bang & Olufsen .
  • Wind protection - (also: pop protection) acts against low-frequency sound components of swirling air movements (wind) and human pronunciation.
  • Well-tempered mood - under the collective name, Andreas Werckmeister introduced a series of moods on keyboard instrumentsfrom 1681, which expanded the mean-tone moods so that the keys of the entire circle of fifths became playable.
  • Word clock - the basic clock in digital audio technology.


  • XLR - industry standard for electrical plug connections in professional sound reinforcement and recording studio technology
  • XY microphone method - see: Intensity stereophony
  • XY stereophony - see: Intensity stereophony
  • XY stereo system , XY stereophony system - a stereo miking method for loudspeaker stereophony


Individual evidence

  1. Andreas Gernemann: Coherence and correlation in recording studio technology . (PDF; 10 kB) Brief work at the University of Cologne; Retrieved April 26, 2013
  2. a b Worksheet for studio adaptation at (PDF; 74 kB) Informative worksheet with regard to  reference levels and impedances. Retrieved April 26, 2013
  3. Thoughts on the lecture: Music transmission (PDF; 24 kB) Retrieved on April 28, 2013