Loudspeaker stereophony

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The loudspeaker stereophony is a partial region of the stereophonic and the technique describes playback of a sound recording over speakers . In contrast to this is the headphone stereophony , which was recorded with artificial head- like separators .


In the past, people tried to make a division that wanted to differentiate between “space-related” stereophony and “head-related” stereophony. What is meant is that the room-related stereophony should only be intended for loudspeaker reproduction and the head-related stereophony only for headphone reproduction. However, we really hear everything with our own hearing, so definitely always "head-related". That is why the terms loudspeaker stereophony and headphone stereophony are clearer.

In the literature, attempts are often made to build bridges between these two very different systems, but this does not work in practice. Artificial head recordings that are played back via stereo loudspeakers, and conventional stereo microphone recordings that are played back via headphones, must deliver a false sound image with a change in timbre and directional mapping. It is pointless to persuade a compatibility (agreement) that does not exist here. There have been numerous attempts with time-of-flight crosstalk compensation (crosstalk canceller) and filter equalization in order to make artificial head recordings audible for stereo loudspeaker reproduction, even if only for a relatively small listening area (transaural stereo). Conversely, there have been attempts with delay and filter equalization to make stereo microphone recordings usable for headphone playback, i.e. That is to say, in order to eliminate the "in the head localization" in particular.

In English-speaking countries, “stereophony” is understood to mean only loudspeaker stereophony, because headphone stereophony, on the other hand, is unmistakably called binaural recording and reproduction .

The audio event

The Hörereignisrichtung the phantom source on the speaker base to the pan pots (pan controls) and thus regulating Inter Channel - level differences can be adjusted. Δ L max = 18 dB (16 to 20 dB) apply to a full sideways direction from a loudspeaker . The phantom sound sources on the loudspeaker base must also be changed with the transit time differences of the microphone systems. Δ t max = 1.5 ms (1 to 2 ms) act depending on the signal with full sideways direction from a loudspeaker. These differences, which vary depending on the sound incidence angle , are generated by the respective stereo microphone arrangements, which thus also provide the important recording area of the microphone system. Another sound engineering design tool for level differences is the panorama controller , called a panpot .

The determination of the direction of a heard object is called localization in acoustics and sound engineering . We localize the sound source through natural hearing and when reproducing the loudspeaker stereophony we localize the phantom sound source, which is called directional localization. This localization heard is not a localization in the usual terminology.


“Elevation” is the name given to the effect that occurs when one approaches the loudspeaker front in the stereo triangle on the center line and the mid-range sound sources move upwards above the loudspeaker level.

See also


  • Michael Dickreiter, Volker Dittel, Wolfgang Hoeg, Martin Wöhr (eds.): Manual of the recording studio technology . 2 volumes. 8th, revised and expanded edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-028978-7 or e- ISBN 978-3-11-031650-6
  • Thomas Görne: Sound engineering. 1st edition, Carl Hanser Verlag, Leipzig, 2006, ISBN 3-446-40198-9

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