The ecology-oriented production describes the generation of products and considers this addition to the traditional aspects of service provision and environmental aspects. As a value-creating process, it is one of the primary activities of the value chain, alongside the preceding ecologically-oriented procurement and the subsequent stages of sales and disposal .
Under production the process of converting so-called very generally factors of production to products, services or combinations of both understood. In view of the change in values and the increasing pressure on companies from external groups that are directly or indirectly connected to a company, manufacturing companies see themselves being asked to convert existing production technology to more sustainable processes in accordance with Sustainable Development .
According to Gutenberg, the core of operational service provision is human work performance, work and operating resources. It is only through these three factors that the extraction, refinement or manufacture of material goods and the provision of services is possible. The conversion processes themselves take place through the use of certain production processes. From the point of view of economic models, the environment is not explicitly mentioned as an independent factor. The elementary production factors are formed by labor, land and capital, the so-called original factors.
In addition to Gutenberg's object-related factors, there are also dispositive factors that are used to design the production functions - the performance, planning and organizational tasks. The original, dispositive factor is, for example, the management, while the derivative, dispositive factor is planning and organization. Since production factors can be varied over time and thus enable various possible combinations with one another, these can be differentiated as potential and repetition factors. While potential factors can be used several times within a certain framework, repeating factors are already used up once they are used.
Even if the natural environment is often not mentioned directly as a production factor, it indirectly contributes to a company's performance . In doing so, although not explicitly, it is taken into account as a provider of resources and recording medium in production.
The production of products (and services) through economically viable and also ecologically responsible production processes is called ecologically-oriented production .
There are several reasons why a company should consider environmental considerations. As in most economic areas, political specifications and regulations also play an important role in the provision of operational services . Adjustments to new or expanded environmental guidelines in production can be designed and implemented in the input , process and output areas.
Examples of environmental policy instruments are noise limit values for aggregates and machines, product standards for products to be sold or also environmental expenditure, tax and subsidy measures that simultaneously influence the market price mechanism. There is a need for further action on the part of society (e.g. by protest of local residents) and the market (e.g. more successful, environmentally friendly competitor product). Regulatory measures (e.g. emissions trading) also lead to changes in the company's activities.
Adjustment measures are generally time-dependent and, from a business point of view, affect material procurement, production and sales areas of a company in the course of a production process.
Adaptation measures can also be differentiated over their time horizon. In the short term, this can be done by choosing the quantity to be produced. In the medium term there is the possibility of closing down the production facilities. The choice of location, the planning of the production program and the choice and design of the production processes are decisions that have to be made over the long term.
In the input area, adjustment measures are implemented by varying the amount and quality used and input factors. In connection with the ecologically oriented procurement, environmentally harmful input materials should be completely or only partially substituted by environmentally friendly ones. Likewise, in terms of recycling, it is also possible to reuse or reuse materials and energies that have already been used in other or the same production process.
Process changes or the use of new or the expansion of existing production processes as well as changed material and energy flows due to various recycling methods in the sense of a circular economy are measures for adaptation in the process area.
The adaptation to environmental policy frameworks in the output area are characterized by the variation in the output quantity (mostly associated with production restrictions) as well as the production program, disposal measures and recycling .
Forms of adaptation in the production area
|Short term||Medium term||Long term|
|(With a given inventory of potential factors)||(With a given inventory of material and immaterial property potential, but a variable inventory of contract potential)||(If all potential factors change)|
|Temporal adjustment||Quantitative adjustment||Quantitative adjustment|
|Adjustment according to intensity||Qualitative adjustment i. w. S.||Qualitative adjustment i. w. S.|
|Qualitative adjustment i. e. S.|
- Ecology-oriented business administration
- Ecology-oriented corporate management
- environmental Protection
- natural reserve
- Environmental strategy
- Environmental management
- Technical University of Dresden : Faculty of Economics, Chair for Business Administration, in particular corporate environmental economics
- H. Corsten, R. Gössinger: Lexicon of business administration. 5th edition. Oldenbourg, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58717-3 .
- E. Günther: Ecology-oriented management. Environmental (world-oriented) thinking in business administration. Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-8383-4 .
- D. Adam (Ed.): Environmental management in production. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 3-409-17911-9 .
- E. Gutenberg: Basics of business administration. Volume 1: The Production. 24th edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 1983, ISBN 3-540-05694-7 .
- L. Wicke, H.-D. Haasis, F. Schafhausen: Company environmental economics. A practice-oriented introduction. Vahlen, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-8006-1357-3 .
- D. Adam (Ed.): Environmental management in production. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1993, p. 1.
- E. Gutenberg: Fundamentals of business administration. Volume 1: The Production. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 1983, p. 2.
- E. Günther: Ecology-oriented management. Environmental (world-oriented) thinking in business administration. Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2008, p. 180.
- L. Wicke, H.-D. Haasis, F. Schafhausen: Company environmental economics. A practice-oriented introduction. Vahlen, Munich 1992, p. 155.
- E. Günther: Ecology-oriented management. Environmental (world-oriented) thinking in business administration. Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2008, p. 181.
- L. Wicke, H.-D. Haasis, F. Schafhausen: Company environmental economics. A practice-oriented introduction. Vahlen, Munich 1992, p. 155 f.
- L. Wicke, H.-D. Haasis, F. Schafhausen: Company environmental economics. A practice-oriented introduction. Vahlen, Munich 1992, p. 157.