The western entrance gate to the Saxon Garden in Warsaw was called Żelazna Brama ( Iron Gate ) . The gate itself, which was erected in the first half of the 18th century, was not of outstanding importance, but as its namesake it found and continues to resonate in Warsaw's architectural history.
The no longer existing gate was in what is now Warsaw's inner city . It formed an essential element of the Saxon Axis , which began at Krakowskie Przedmieście and ended at the barracks of the Royal Guard (today Mirów Halls ) and the current Fire Brigade Museum of the Wola Fire Brigade . Today, in the place of the gate, there is a curved and here two-part extension of Marszałkowska Street to Bankowy Square.
In 1724, the gate was built on behalf of King August II according to a project by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann as part of the walling of the Saxon Garden. The gate consisted of two mighty pillars used as gate houses and the two-winged, wrought iron gate. The iron wings were about one meter wide and about 3.50 meters high. The upper half of the wings consisted of upright lances that swung up towards the center of the gate. The also 2 meter wide gate pillars, the windows of which were provided with bars, had a height of around 5 meters. The splendidly decorated gate pillars were crowned with emblems of the kingdoms of August II - the Polish and Lithuanian under a royal crown and the Saxon Wettin .
The gate formed the end of the Saxon Garden in a westerly direction and was locked until the park was opened for public use. It separated the royal park from the "Plac Targowicy Wielopolskiej" ( Trade Square in Wielopolska ) behind it , which was later to be named after the gate. In 1818 the wall surrounding the park was replaced by a lattice fence; As part of this change, the two goal posts were demolished and the door leaves replaced with a simpler cast iron construction. The western part of the fence was demolished again as early as 1821. The western tip of the park was shifted to the east in favor of enlarging the trading center. A new iron gate was built in 1821 (the posts were also made of iron) at a different location. This gate was removed without replacement when the extension of Marszałkowska Street was built around 1920.
- Just a few years after the Iron Gate was built, the large market square behind it, previously known as "Plac Targowicy Wielopolskiej", was called Plac Za Żelazną Bramą ( Place behind the Iron Gate ). This expression is still used today, but the square it refers to is a result of the complete redevelopment of the area after the Second World War and no longer marks the course of the original market square.
- The district that was created here instead of the pre-war buildings is called Za Żelazną Bramą ( Behind the Iron Gate ).
- A housing and management cooperative based on Twarda Street is called Spółdzielnia Mieszkaniowa Żelazna Brama .
- A Polish music band founded in 2008, whose members come from the new district, also calls itself "Żelazna Brama" ( Iron Gate ).
- The "Wielki Salon", probably also built by Pöppelmann, redesigned by Szymon Bogumił Zug in 1775 and 1789 , partly demolished in 1804 and finally demolished in 1817, was a monumental observation tower 21 meters high in the Saxon Garden
- according to Adolf Ciborowski, Warsaw. Destruction and reconstruction of the city , Impress-Verlag (PAI), Warsaw 1969, p. 23
- according to Company data for Spółdzielnia Mieszkaniowa Żelazna Brama at Zumi.pl
- according to Fansite at Muzzo.pl
- Ryszard Mączewski, Jarosław Zieliński and Krzysztof Jaszczyński, Co bylo za Żelazną Bramą? , in: Stolica magazine , No. 10 (2199), October 2008, , Ekbin Verlag, Warsaw 2008, pp. 6-18 (in Polish)
- Dobrosław Kobielski, Warszawa na fotografiach z XIX wieku , Verlag KAW, RSW Prasa Ksiązka Ruch, Warsaw 1982, p. 174 ff. (In Polish)