Fire compartment

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cross-section of a multi-storey building that was divided into three fire compartments by fire walls (thick lines)

A fire compartment is a structurally demarcated area that burns out as intended in the event of damage ( fire ) and therefore must not allow a flash of fire to other fire compartments.

Fire -resistant components prevent the fire from spreading to adjacent sections .

In general, a fire compartment includes all floors of a building and is drawn straight through from top to bottom (in the example image the separation between BA I and BA II ). Under certain conditions, fire compartments may also be staggered (in the example image the separation between BA II and BA III ), but the ceilings between the offset fire walls must then be fire -resistant to prevent flashover. For the same reason, windows in the vicinity of the fire compartment partitions must be made fire-retardant.

Difference between fire wall and fire compartment

Fire walls must not be moved, as not only the flashover of fire and smoke, but also static transmission through the fire wall must be made impossible. A fire compartment boundary can make several U-turns within a building, which would be unusual with a fire wall. So when a fire breaks out, a structural collapse on one side of the fire wall should not overturn to the other. In comparison, the conventional fire compartment cannot guarantee this structural effect. For example, a wall can be made of plasterboard or calcium silicate boards with a thin sheet metal framework, which can have a fire resistance of up to four hours . However, according to DIN 4102, a fire wall must also be able to withstand a mechanical impact test, which the normal fire section is not able to withstand.

Legal requirements

In Canada as the National writes Model Building Code (MBO) (NBC = National Building Code of Canada) requires that a fire wall concrete include needs , while the conventional fire zone only the normal CAN4-S101 exam has to exist. In legal terms, the difference between a fire wall and a fire compartment consists of the additional requirements for the fire resistance class . The requirements for the fire walls are higher. While Germany makes a special test mandatory, other countries prefer to make the type mandatory.

The exact requirements can be found in the relevant building regulations, for example in the German model building regulations or the state building regulations (LBO), which are based on the MBO. Apart from the requirements of the respective fire resistance classes, there are also international differences in the building regulations with regard to the areas, or the maximum number of square meters that can be built without a division into fire compartments. Most larger buildings require fire compartments, but not necessarily fire walls. The architect is usually responsible for this subdivision. There is also an international trend towards upgrading passive versus active fire protection in building regulations. For example, a sprinkler-protected building may allow larger areas before it is necessary to divide it into sections. Conversely, sprinkler protection can also be partially omitted if smaller fire compartment areas are used. Such offsetting of the value of passive fire protection (compartmentalization through components with high fire resistance classes) against active fire protection (extinguishing and reporting measures) is currently an international topic of discussion in the fire protection industry. Both sides (active versus passive) are constantly trying to influence building regulations internationally in their own favor.

See also


  • Hans Michael Bock, Ernst Klement: Fire protection practice for architects and engineers Fire protection regulations and current planning examples. Bauwerk Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-410-21646-9 .

Web links

Commons : Brandwand  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Brandwand  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations