Cadrage (from French le cadre , the frame), in German also Kadrage , in English framing , is a film science term that describes the selection of the image section . The image field enclosed by the image format is called cadre , the frame of the image detail is called cadre . The terms are often used synonymously. The term setting size must be distinguished from the term cadrage .
The Cadrage determined in the planning of setting the placement and movement of goods and people within the framework laid down by the film format as well as the implementation of immovable bildkompositorische three-dimensional environment for the two-dimensional image. By means of a the film format corresponding optical viewfinder (engl .: View Finder ) plan before the later visible in the film image area many directors. The cadrage sets the visual focus of the image and does not necessarily correspond to the natural view: through use of space, lighting, choice of lens and other influences, distorted proportions or visual emphasis on details can be achieved.
An unspoken agreement between the filmmaker and the film recipient is that the space shown on film “continues” outside the visible area. Normally, the viewer assumes that he is shown all important information in the image section. What is happening outside of this section, i.e. off camera , cannot be controlled by him and is thus unsettling. This effect of visually withheld information is used by some directors as a stylistic device, such as Alfred Hitchcock in many of his films.
The aim of classic Hollywood cinema was not only to make the cut “ invisible ”, but also to make the boundaries of the image area as inconspicuous and natural as possible. Therefore, action often took place in the image center; the edge areas often remained purely decorative. After the end of the classic Hollywood era, the room presentation for the viewer became more complex: the uniformity of the overall situation arising in the viewer's head was promoted as an illusionary construct by a wide variety of film techniques, such as actors looking off-screen, sequence of individual perspectives in the cut , subjective settings with moving ones Camera, spatial illusion in sound and much more.
- Jürgen Kühnel: Introduction to film analysis . Part 1: The characters of the film. Series Media Studies, Volume 4. Universi, Siegen, 3rd edition 2008. ISBN 978-3-936-53313-2 (Cadrage: pp. 87–155)
- Knut Hickethier: Film and television analysis . Metzler, Stuttgart, 4th, updated. u. exp. Edition 2007. ISBN 978-3-476-02186-1