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Capsal (also kapsal , palmelloid or tetrasporal ) is a term from botany and denotes an organizational level of algae . The term "tetrasporal" refers to the green alga Tetraspora .

It is a cell wall loose and uncultivated, unicellular algae which are surrounded by a gelatinous shell. Cell colonies ( coenobia ) develop . Some of the individual cells still show features of the monadal stage (flagellated, unicellular algae). So z. B. in the cells there may still be an ocular spot or reduced flagella. Flagellated zoospores can also be formed, which detach from the association and form new colonies (e.g. in the species Hydrurus foetidus )

The capsal phase or palmella phase is a temporary, flagellated resting phase. The otherwise flagellated alga surrounds itself with a gelatinous layer and can continue to divide vegetatively in the gelatinous. It occurs u. a. in Euglena and Chlamydomonas .


Some capsal algae:


  • Christian van den Hoek, Hans M. Jahns, David G. Mann: Algae . 3. Edition. Thieme, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-13-551103-0
  • Günter Throm: Biology of the cryptogams. Volume II: Algae - Mosses . Haag and Herchen Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1997 ISBN 3-86137-581-8