Permanent neutrality

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As permanent neutrality refers to a created by international treaty or by declaration and general recognition of fundamental obligation of a state to a neutral foreign policy. In the case of Switzerland and Austria, there has long been talk of permanent neutrality .

Country Remarks
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland The perpetual neutrality of Switzerland , which had not participated in wars since the Battle of Marignano in 1515 and had been neutral since its settlement under international law from the Holy Roman Empire in 1648, was generally recognized in 1815 with the Second Peace of Paris . Switzerland demonstrates its will to defend itself through considerable military spending and a comprehensive militia system .
AustriaAustria Austria The permanent neutrality of Austria was based on the Moscow Memorandum of April 15, 1955 negotiated between Austria and the USSR . In this the Soviet conditions for the restoration of Austrian sovereignty and for the conclusion of the Austrian State Treaty were politically agreed. Austria committed itself to "always practice a neutrality of the kind that Switzerland does". This obligation was redeemed on October 26, 1955 with the establishment of “perpetual neutrality” in the Austrian constitution . According to the Austrian view, the Moscow Memorandum is irrelevant today, since the contracting party Soviet Union no longer exists. The country applied for EU membership in 1989 without objection from the USSR and has been a member since 1995 ( EU enlargement 1995 : accession of Austria, Sweden and Finland). The 1955 Neutrality Act was overlaid by newer constitutional laws that legally secure participation in the EU's common foreign and security policy .
Vatican cityVatican Vatican city The permanent neutrality of the Vatican State is enshrined in Article 24 of the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
MaltaMalta Malta According to a declaration from 1981 and corresponding recognition.
Costa RicaCosta Rica Costa Rica According to a 1983 statement.
CambodiaCambodia Cambodia Since the settlement of the Cambodia conflict in several international treaties, permanently neutral.

See also