In biology, existential needs are physiologically necessary living conditions such as breathing, nutrition, light and warmth, which directly ensure the exchange of substances and energy and thus the self-preservation of a living being .
Plants, algae , some bacteria and archaea carry out photosynthesis and need light and other microorganisms live from chemosynthesis . Animals metabolize (metabolize) other organisms or their storage materials (such as carbohydrates, proteins or fats) during their digestion, see also chemotrophy .
Examples of human existential needs are:
- Breathing (clean air)
- Food (clean drinking water, healthy food)
- Warmth and sleep (clothing, shelter)
- Management-oriented business administration, Jean-Paul Thommen, 7th revised edition