Free surface (fluid mechanics)

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Free surface (engl. Free surface ) referred to in the computational fluid dynamics or the fluid dynamics , the interface between a gas and a liquid .

The reason for labeling with the term "free" is the large difference in density between the gas and the liquid (the density ratio of water to air is 1000). The low density of the gas means that its inertia force can generally be ignored in comparison with that of the liquid, so that the liquid movement is "independent" or "free" of the inertia force of the gas.

There are numerous numerical calculation methods to calculate free surface:


  • Francis H. Harlow, J. Eddie Welch: Numerical Calculation of Time-Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow . In: Physics of Fluids , Vol. 8 (1965), p. 2182, ISSN  0031-9171 .
  • Cyril W. Hirt, B. Nichols: Volume of fluid method for the dynamics of free boundaries . In: Journal of Computational Physics , Vol. 39 (1981), pp. 201-225, ISSN  0021-9991 .
  • Cyril W. Hirt, JL Cook, T. Daniel Butler: A Lagrangian Method for Calculating the Dynamics of an Incompressible Fluid with Free Surface . In: Journal of Computational Physics , Vol. 5 (1970), p. 103, ISSN  0021-9991 .
  • Cyril W. Hirt, Anthony A. Amsden, JL Cook: An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Computing Method for all Flow Speeds . In: Journal of Computational Physics , Vol. 14 (1974), p. 227, ISSN  0021-9991 .

See also

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