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The Arabic-Islamic legal term Ghanīma ( Arabic غنيمة According to classical legal theory , DMG ġanīma '(war) booty' refers to the movable goods captured by the Ḥarbīs in jihad through acts of war, as well as the prisoners of war. Goods not captured by acts of war are, however, Fai ' .

The Sharia stipulates the following for the Ghanima: Four fifths of the Ghanima are to be distributed among Muslim fighters present at the battle, one fifth belongs to Allah. This fifth was originally given to the Imam to administer, later it was distributed among the needy. Riders get three times the amount, in other opinion double the amount.

The captured non-Muslims are distributed among the Muslim fighters as slaves , whereby women can be taken as concubines ; possible marriages of the slave women are annulled.

The imam can claim the captured men for himself. He can kill them, release them for ransom or exchange them for Muslim prisoners. According to Abu Hanifa , they should not be released.


  • F. Løkkegaard: Art. "Ghanīma" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Vol. II, pp. 1005-1006.
  • Marco Schöller: Exegetical thinking and biography of the prophets: a source-critical analysis of the Sīra tradition on Muḥammads conflict with the Jews . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1998. pp. 363-462.