Hindu lunisolar calendar
The Hindu lunisolar calendar exists in a great variety and regional variants. This article therefore only presents the basic principles on which all lunisolar calendars are based.
history
The oldest references to chronology on the Indian subcontinent can be found in the Vedas , the oldest parts of which date back to around 1200 BC. Go back BC. The Jyotisha Vedanga with treatises on astronomy and astrology comes from a later period . Greek and Babylonian knowledge influenced the Siddhantas (astronomical textbooks) in the first centuries AD . The three most important are probably the oldest Surya-Siddhanta , the Arya-Siddhanta of the astronomer Aryabhata I (476 - around 550 AD) and the Brahma-Siddhanta of Brahmagupta (598 - 668).
Up until around AD 1100, the calendar calculation was based on the mean movement of the sun and moon, later reference was made to the apparent movement of the sun and moon.
The year
The lunisolar year is a lunar year linked to the sidereal solar year with twelve or thirteen months. This results in a common year ( samvatsara mana ) with twelve months a length of 354 or 355 days and for a leap year (adhika samvatsara ) with thirteen months a length of 383, 384 or 385 days.
There are two forms of the year. If - as above all in northern India - the months last from one full moon to the next full moon, the year is a purnimanta year, if - as especially in the south of the country - the months last from one new moon to the next new moon, that is Year an amanta year.
The year count
The years are counted as elapsed years after the Kali Yuga era and as current years after the Vikrama Samvat era .
The beginning of the year
The year begins almost everywhere in India with the last new moon, before the sun enters the sign mesha (Aries). Such a year is called chaitrada . In Gujarat, the year begins with the new moon, before the sun enters the sign tula (Libra). Such a year is called a karttikadi . Since the year always begins with a new moon, a purnimanta year therefore begins in the middle of a month.
The precision
Since the lunar year is linked to the sidereal year, it is on average as long as the sidereal year, the length of which the Surya-Siddhanta states as 365.2587558 days. The other Siddhantas give a slightly different value. Since the length of the sidereal year is actually 365.2563042 days, i.e. the Surya-Siddhanta year is 0.0024516 days longer, it is shifted by 1 ° in around 400 years compared to the fixed stars. While the reference point around the year 285 AD was the star chaitra (Spica, αVir), today it is the star τVir. Because of the precession of the earth's axis , the vernal equinox shifts towards the fixed star sky, and today the sun faces the star τVir around mid-April. The beginning of the lunisolar year currently falls between mid-March and mid-April. The following table shows the beginning of the year for the next few years. Because of the many variants of the calendar invoice, the actual date may differ by a day or two.
Kali Yuga | Vicrama Samvat | Gregorian |
---|---|---|
5116 | 2071 | March 31, 2014 |
5117 | 2072 | March 20, 2015 |
5118 | 2073 | April 7, 2016 |
5119 | 2074 | March 28, 2017 |
5120 | 2075 | 17th March 2018 |
5121 | 2076 | 5th April 2019 |
5122 | 2077 | March 24, 2020 |
The month
The civil month is to be distinguished from the lunar month.
The lunar month
A lunar month begins with a new moon or a full moon. If the month begins and ends with a new moon, it is an amana masa , if it begins and ends with a full moon, it is a purnimanta masa .
A lunar month consists of 30 lunar days (see below), which are divided into two halves of 15 lunar days each: The light half with the waxing moon, which begins at the new moon and ends at the full moon, is called sukla paksha , the dark half with the waning moon, which begins at the full moon and ends at the new moon is called krishna paksha .
The 15 days of the light half are counted from 1 to 15 and marked by a preceding "S" (for sukla - light); the 15 days of the dark half are counted from 1 to 14 and the last day with 30 and marked by a preceding "K" (for krishna - dark). In an amanta month, the first, light half is followed by the dark, second half, which explains the count K 30 for the last day of the month.
In a purnimanta month, the first, dark half is followed by the light, second half. Here, too, the last day of the dark half K 30 is counted, although it falls in the middle of the month.
Sometimes the individual lunar days are also referred to by names that are derived from the Indian numerals:
No. | Surname |
---|---|
1 | pratipadâ |
2 | dvitîyâ |
3 | tŗitîyâ |
4th | chaturtî |
5 | panchamî |
6th | shasthî |
7th | saptamî |
8th | ashtamî |
9 | navamî |
10 | daśamî |
11 | ekâdasî |
12 | dvâdasî |
13 | trayôdasî |
14th | chartudasî |
15th | pûrņimâ |
30th | amâvâsyâ |
The civil month
The civil month begins with a new moon or full moon before the sun enters a new zodiac sign ( samkranti ).
It takes the sun an average of 30.43822963 days to move through a zodiac sign. Because of its uneven movement, the time fluctuates between 29.34806481 and 31.61057407 days. The moon needs an average of 29.53058796 days from new moon to new moon or full moon to full moon. Because of its uneven movement, the time fluctuates between 29.246 and 29.817 days.
Because of the different duration, it happens that a lunar month ends without the sun having entered a new zodiac sign. In this case, an additional civil month is switched on and the year comprises 13 months.
A month that is switched on is called adhika and precedes the actual ( nija ) month.
In addition, it happens - albeit rarely - that the sun completely traverses one sign of the zodiac and enters a second sign of the zodiac during a lunar month. In this case, a civil month is turned off.
A month that is switched off is called kshaya . However, a bound lunar year always includes 12 or 13 civil months, so that sooner or later at least one civil month is inevitably switched on. The civil month has a length of 29 or 30 civil days (see below).
The month names
The month names are very old and have a long tradition.The individual months of the year have the following names in a chaitrada year:
month | |
---|---|
Indian | German |
चैत | Chaitra |
वैशाख | Vaiśâkha |
ज्येष | Jyeshtha |
आषाढ | Asâdha |
श्रावण | Śrâvana |
भाद्रपद | Bhâdrapada |
अश्विन् | Âśvina |
कार्तिक | Karttika |
मार्गशीर्ष | Agrahayana |
पौष | Pausha |
माघ | Mâgha |
फाल्गुन | Phâlguna |
In a karttikadi year the year begins with the month of Kârttika,
The day
The lunar day
A lunar month is the complete revolution of the moon around the earth in relation to the sun. During this orbit, the moon gains 360 ° distance from the sun in the course of a lunar month. A lunar day ( tithi ) is the time in which the moon gains 12 ° more distance from the sun. A lunar day lasts on average 23.62447222 hours.
The civil day
The civil day is counted after the lunar day on which sunrise falls.
Because of the uneven movement of the moon, however, the length of a lunar day varies widely; it fluctuates between 21.57333333 and 26.10666667 hours. Because of the different lengths of lunar day and civil day, it happens that a lunar day ends without a new civil day having started. In this case, a day is skipped in the day count; z. B. follows Wednesday S 3 Thursday S 5.
It also happens that two civil days begin during one lunar day. In this case, one day is counted twice when counting the day; z. B. follows Tuesday K 3 Wednesday K 3.
Division of the day
The civil day is divided into 60 gathas , these into 60 palas and these in turn into 60 vipalas . The following table contrasts gathas and hours and their subdivisions.
Indian | west |
---|---|
1 gathikâ = 60 pala | 24 minutes |
1 pala = 60 vipalas | 24 seconds |
1 vipala | 0.4 seconds |
west | Indian |
1 hour | 2 1/2 gathikâ |
1 minute | 2 1/2 pala |
1 second | 2 1/2 vipalas |
Nakshatra
The orbit that the moon traverses in a sidereal month and for which the moon needs 27.32167361 days was already divided into 27 or 28 lunar houses ( nakshatra ) and named after the star constellation of the respective section. Today a division into 27 equally large sections of 13 ° 20 'each is common. The names of the lunar houses and their starting point are listed in the table below.
No. | Surname | Beginning | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
Indian | transcription | Degree | Minutes | |
1 | अश्विनी | âśhvinî | 0 ° | |
2 | भरणी | bharaņî | 13 ° | 20th |
3 | कृत्तिका | kŗittikâ | 26 ° | 40 |
4th | रोहिणी | rohiņî | 40 ° | |
5 | म्रृगशीर्षा | mŗigaśiras | 53 ° | 20th |
6th | आद्रा | ârdrâ | 66 ° | 40 |
7th | पुनर्वसु | purnavasu | 80 ° | |
8th | पुष्य | pushya | 93 ° | 20th |
9 | आश्ळेषा | âśhleshâ | 106 ° | 40 |
10 | मघा | maghâ | 120 ° | |
11 | पूर्व फाल्गुनी | pûrvaphâlgunî | 133 ° | 20th |
12 | उत्तर फाल्गुनी | uttaraphâlgunî | 146 ° | 40 |
13 | हस्त | haveâ | 160 ° | |
14th | चित्रा | chitrâ | 173 ° | 20th |
15th | स्वाति | svâti | 186 ° | 40 |
16 | विशाखा | viśâkhâ | 200 ° | |
17th | अनुराधा | anurâdhâ | 213 ° | 20th |
18th | ज्येष्ठा | jyeshthâ | 226 ° | 40 |
19th | मूल / मूळ | mûlam | 240 ° | |
20th | पूर्वाषाढा | pûrvaashâdhâ | 253 ° | 20th |
21st | उत्तराषाढा | uttaraashâdhâ | 266 ° | 40 |
22nd | श्रवण | śravaņa | 280 ° | |
23 | श्रविष्ठा | śravishţhâ | 293 ° | 20th |
24 | शतभिषक् | śatabhishaj | 306 ° | 40 |
25th | पूर्वभाद्रपदा | pûrvabhâdrapada | 320 ° | |
26th | उत्तरभाद्रपदा | uttarabhâdrapada | 333 ° | 20th |
27 | रेवती | revatî | 346 ° | 40 |
yoga
A yoga is the time, move together in the sun and moon to a total of 13 ° 20 ', so by the length of a lunar house. Accordingly, there are 27 yogas . A yoga session lasts on average 22.59575 and varies between 20.88 and 24.60667 hours. The names of the yogas are listed in the following table
No. | Surname |
---|---|
1 | vishkambha |
2 | prîti |
3 | ayushmat |
4th | saubhâgya |
5 | śobhana |
6th | atigaņda |
7th | sukarman |
8th | dhŗiti |
9 | śūla |
10 | gaņda |
11 | vŗiddhi |
12 | dhruva |
13 | vyâghâta |
14th | harshaņa |
15th | vajra |
16 | siddhi |
17th | vyatîpâta |
18th | varîyas |
19th | parigha |
20th | śiva |
21st | siddha |
22nd | sādhya |
23 | śubha |
24 | śukla |
25th | brahman |
26th | indra |
27 | vaidhŗti |
Karana
A karana is the time in which the moon wanders through half a lunar house, i.e. half a tithi . In addition to four fixed names (1/1, 29/2, 30/1 and 30/2) there are seven names that are repeated several times. The following table gives the names of the 30 karanas and their assignment to the tithis :
tithi | 1st half. | 2nd half. | tithi | 1st half. | 2nd half | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
No. | Indian | Transcription | Indian | Transcription | No. | Indian | Transcription | Indian | Transcription |
1 | किंस्तुघ्न | kiṃstughna | बव | bava | 16 | बालव | bālava | कौलव | kaulava |
2 | बालव | bālava | कौलव | kaulava | 17th | तैतिल | taitila | गरज | gara |
3 | तैतिल | taitila | गरज | gara | 18th | वणिज | vaņij | भद्रा | viṣhţi |
4th | वणिज | vaņij | भद्रा | viṣhţi | 19th | बव | bava | बालव | bālava |
5 | बव | bava | बालव | bālava | 20th | कौलव | kaulava | तैतिल | taitila |
6th | कौलव | kaulava | तैतिल | taitila | 21st | गरज | gara | वणिज | vaņij |
7th | गरज | gara | वणिज | vaņij | 22nd | भद्रा | viṣhţi | बव | bava |
8th | भद्रा | viṣhţi | बव | bava | 23 | बालव | bālava | कौलव | kaulava |
9 | बालव | bālava | कौलव | kaulava | 24 | तैतिल | taitila | गरज | gara |
10 | तैतिल | taitila | गरज | gara | 25th | वणिज | vaņij | भद्रा | viṣhţi |
11 | वणिज | vaņij | भद्रा | viṣhţi | 26th | बव | bava | बालव | bālava |
12 | बव | bava | बालव | bālava | 27 | कौलव | kaulava | तैतिल | taitila |
13 | कौलव | kaulava | तैतिल | taitila | 28 | गरज | gara | वणिज | vaņij |
14th | गरज | gara | वणिज | vaņij | 29 | भद्रा | viṣhṭi | शकुनि | śakuni |
15th | भद्रा | viṣhṭi | बव | bava | 30th | चतुष्पाद | chatuṣhpada | नाग | nâga |
The week
The week
The week division is of Babylonian-Greek origin. The names are derived from the corresponding deities. The names are listed in the following table:
Indian | Gregorian | |
---|---|---|
रविवार | Ravivār | Sunday |
सोमवार | Somavār | Monday |
मंगलवार | Mangalavār | Tuesday |
बुधवार | Budhavār | Wednesday |
गुरूवार | Guruvār | Thursday |
शुक्रवार | Shukravār | Friday |
शनिवार | Shanivār | Saturday |
The calendar ( panchanga )
A Panchanga (literally: five parts), the traditional Hindu calendar, indicates tithi , nakshatra , yoga and karana for every day in addition to the day of the week for the time of sunrise .
See also
literature
- Friedrich Karl Ginzel Handbook of Mathematical and Technical Chronology. Vol. 1: Calendar of the Babylonians, Egyptians, Mohammedans, Persians, Indians, Southeast Asians, Chinese, Japanese and Central Americans , Leipzig 1906 [Reprint of the original edition, University of Innsbruck, undated] - (online in Internet Archive )
- Robert Sewell / Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit, The Indian Calendar , London 1896 ( as PDF file )
- Edward M. Reingold / Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations - The Millennium Edition , Cambridge 2001 (English)
- Reingold / Nachum Dershowitz, Indian Calendrical Calculations ( as PDF file ) (English)
- Leow Choon Lian, Indian Calendars, National University of Singapore, 2000/2001 ( as PDF file ) (English)
Web links
- Holger Oertel: Calendar in India
- Bernhard Peter: Indian calendar - overview of the different systems
Individual evidence
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 334 f
- ^ Edward M. Reingold / Nachum Dershowitz: Calendrical Calculations - The Millennium Edition , Cambridge 2001, p. 127
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 351
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 347
- ↑ Leow Choon Lian: Indian Calendars , National University of Singapore, 2000/2001, p. 36
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 341
- ↑ Edward M. Reingold / Nachum Dershowitz, Indian Calendrical Calculations ( Memento of the original from March 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , P. 14
- ↑ Details of years , accessed November 9, 2014.
- ↑ Leow Choon Lian: Indian Calendars , National University of Singapore, 2000/2001, pp. 40f.
- ^ Menninger: number and number , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1958, Volume 1, p. 103
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, pp. 348f.
- ^ ^{A } ^{b} Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 342.
- ↑ Leow Choon Lian: Indian Calendars , National University of Singapore, 2000/2001, p. 38.
- ↑ Leow Choon Lian: Indian Calendars , National University of Singapore, 2000/2001, p. 42
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 320
- ^ ^{A } ^{b} Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 349.
- ↑ Leow Choon Lian: Indian Calendars , National University of Singapore, 2000/2001, p. 41
- ↑ ^{a } ^{b} Robert Sewell / Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit: The Indian Calendar , London 1896, p. 2.
- ^ Robert Sewell / Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit, The Indian Calendar , London 1896, p. 21
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 328
- ^ Robert Sewell / Sankara Balkrishna Dikshit, The Indian Calendar , London 1896, p. 3
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of mathematical and technical chronology, Leipzig 1906, Vol. I, pages 361f.
- ^ Friedrich Karl Ginzel: Handbook of the mathematical and technical chronology. Vol. 1, Leipzig 1906, p. 360