Interspecific interrelationships are relationships between individuals or populations of different species . They can be inhibiting or encouraging for one participant or both. Interspecific interrelationships are an important subject of research in ecology . The opposite of them are relationships between individuals of the same kind, i.e. intra-specific relationships .
Interspecific relationships lead to the adaptation of the survival, reproductive and food acquisition strategies of the species involved. If two species adapt to one another in a special way, one speaks of coevolution .
Different forms of interspecific interrelationships
- If both participants have a benefit, one speaks of a symbiosis (in the broader sense). Rather loose partnerships are referred to as alliances, short-term partnerships for mutual benefit as mutualism . If species regularly live so closely together that the partnership is of very high importance or even vital, one speaks of symbiosis in the narrower sense.
- If one of the participants is damaged by the interaction, this is called antibiosis . Antibiosis in which one of the partners benefits from the relationship include parasitism and episitism ( predator-prey relationship ). In the case of interspecific competition , either both are damaged (symmetrical competition) or one species is damaged while the other remains unaffected (asymmetrical competition).
- In probioses (rarely also called carposes), one participant has a benefit, the other neither harm nor benefit. Forms of probiosis are z. B. Parökie , Synökie , Epökie , Necromenie and Phoresie .
- Matthias Schaefer: Ecology. 3rd revised and expanded edition. G. Fischer, Jena 1992, ISBN 3-8252-0430-8 ( Dictionaries of Biology. UTB 430).