Vane motor

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Sectional drawing

A vane motor is a pneumatic motor , in which by means of movable slats in contrast to a piston engine , a rotary motion can be generated directly. The structure is comparable to that of rotary vane pumps and gear pumps .

Layout and function

A vane motor consists of a stator , which is an internally cylindrical housing with inlet and outlet openings, and a rotor , which is an eccentrically arranged shaft with longitudinal slots in which the lamellas are inserted. As a result of this arrangement, the spaces that are delimited between two lamellas, the rotor and the stator, become larger and smaller depending on the position when the rotor rotates. A little way next to the place where this space is smallest is the entrance opening. As the rotor rotates , the gas expands and can finally flow out through the outlet opening at the point where the delimited space between the lamellae is greatest. An attempt is made to also let out as much of the remaining air as possible through further outlet openings further back. With some vane motors, it is also possible to switch the direction of rotation through additional inlet and outlet openings, between which you can switch.

Advantages of air motors (vane motors)

  • suitable for use in potentially explosive areas
  • sealed, e.g. B. for use under water
  • light and compact when only little installation space is available
  • powerful, high torque right from the start
  • sterilizable: for use in medical technology and use in clean rooms
  • Resistant to cleaning agents: for high requirements in the food industry
  • overload safe
  • reversible: can be used in both directions of rotation
  • easily controllable: stepless regulation by changing pressure (torque) and air volume (speed)
  • insensitive to dust
  • insensitive to heat
  • insensitive to vibrations

Applications for air vane motors

  • Explosion-protected area (compressed air motors cool when the load increases, overheating is excluded)
  • Underwater application: Sealed stainless steel vane motors can be used underwater.
Example: Air motor as a milling head drive for a sewer rehabilitation robot.
  • Medical technology: Air motors can be sterilized. If you need a ferrite-free drive, they can be made of ceramic.
  • Tools: e.g. B. Turbine grinder, pneumatic screwdriver , pneumatic drill, milling cutter etc.
  • Mechanical engineering when little installation space is available.
  • Paper industry: Acid-resistant stainless steel motors in paper production, drives for transporting paper strips or as take-up drives.
  • Bulk material conveying: explosion-proof, powerful drive e.g. B. in a barrel tipping device
  • Food industry: a sealed stainless steel motor insensitive to cleaning agents for high hygiene requirements.
  • Shipbuilding: powerful, sea air-resistant air motors.
  • Agitator drives: high-torque motors that achieve high torques at the lowest possible speeds


Applications for which air motors are not / to a limited extent suitable

Compressed air motors, on the other hand, are not suitable for positioning in a production system.

When used in vehicles, the provision of the required amount of air (due to the low energy density) is problematic.

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